# Doctoral Degrees (Electronic Engineering)

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Item Traffic modelling and analysis of next generation networks.(2008) Walingo, Tom Mmbasu.; Takawira, Fambirai.Wireless communication systems have demonstrated tremendous growth over the last decade, and this growth continues unabated worldwide. The networks have evolved from analogue based first generation systems to third generation systems and further. We are envisaging a Next Generation Network (NGN) that should deliver anything anywhere anytime, with full quality of service (QoS) guarantees. Delivering anything anywhere anytime is a challenge that is a focus for many researchers. Careful teletraffic design is required for this ambitious project to be realized. This research goes through the protocol choices, design factors, performance measures and the teletraffic analysis, necessary to make the project feasible. The first significant contribution of this thesis is the development of a Call Admission Control (CAC) model as a means of achieving QoS in the NGN’s. The proposed CAC model uses an expanded set of admission control parameters. The existing CAC schemes focus on one major QoS parameter for CAC; the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based models focus on the signal to interference ratio (SIR) while the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based models focus on delay. A key element of NGN’s is inter-working of many protocols and hence the need for a diverse set of admission control parameters. The developed CAC algorithm uses an expanded set of admission control parameters (SIR, delay, etc). The admission parameters can be generalized as broadly as the design engineer might require for a particular traffic class without rendering the analysis intractable. The second significant contribution of this thesis is the presentation of a complete teletraffic analytical model for an NGN. The NGN network features the following issues; firstly, NGN call admission control algorithm, with expanded admission control parameters; secondly, multiple traffic types, with their diverse demands; thirdly, the NGN protocol issues such as CDMA’s soft capacity and finally, scheduling on both the wired and wireless links. A full teletraffic analysis with all analytical challenges is presented. The analysis shows that an NGN teletraffic model with more traffic parameters performs better than a model with less traffic parameters. The third contribution of the thesis is the extension of the model to traffic arrivals that are not purely Markovian. This work presents a complete teletraffic analytical model with Batch Markovian Arrival (BMAP) traffic statistics unlike the conventional Markovian types. The Markovian traffic models are deployed for analytical simplicity at the expense of realistic traffic types. With CAC, the BMAP processes become non-homogeneous. The analysis of homogeneous BMAP process is extended to non-homogeneous processes for the teletraffic model in this thesis. This is done while incorporating all the features of the NGN network. A feasible analytical model for an NGN must combine factors from all the areas of the protocol stack. Most models only consider the physical layer issues such as SIR or the network layer issues such as packet delay. They either address call level issues or packet level issues on the network. The fourth contribution has been to incorporate the issues of the transport layer into the admission control algorithm. A complete teletraffic analysis of our network with the effects of the transport layer protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), is performed. This is done over a wireless channel. The wireless link and the protocol are mathematically modeled, there-after, the protocols effect on network performance is thoroughly presented.Item Channel estimation for SISO and MIMO OFDM communications systems.(2010) Oyerinde, Olutayo Oyeyemi.; Mneney, Stanley Henry.Telecommunications in the current information age is increasingly relying on the wireless link. This is because wireless communication has made possible a variety of services ranging from voice to data and now to multimedia. Consequently, demand for new wireless capacity is growing rapidly at a very alarming rate. In a bid to cope with challenges of increasing demand for higher data rate, better quality of service, and higher network capacity, there is a migration from Single Input Single Output (SISO) antenna technology to a more promising Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna technology. On the other hand, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique has emerged as a very popular multi-carrier modulation technique to combat the problems associated with physical properties of the wireless channels such as multipath fading, dispersion, and interference. The combination of MIMO technology with OFDM techniques, known as MIMO-OFDM Systems, is considered as a promising solution to enhance the data rate of future broadband wireless communication Systems. This thesis addresses a major area of challenge to both SISO-OFDM and MIMO-OFDM Systems; estimation of accurate channel state information (CSI) in order to make possible coherent detection of the transmitted signal at the receiver end of the system. Hence, the first novel contribution of this thesis is the development of a low complexity adaptive algorithm that is robust against both slow and fast fading channel scenarios, in comparison with other algorithms employed in literature, to implement soft iterative channel estimator for turbo equalizer-based receiver for single antenna communication Systems. Subsequently, a Fast Data Projection Method (FDPM) subspace tracking algorithm is adapted to derive Channel Impulse Response Estimator for implementation of Decision Directed Channel Estimation (DDCE) for Single Input Single Output - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (SISO-OFDM) Systems. This is implemented in the context of a more realistic Fractionally Spaced-Channel Impulse Response (FS-CIR) channel model, as against the channel characterized by a Sample Spaced-Channel Impulse Response (SS)-CIR widely assumed by other authors. In addition, a fast convergence Variable Step Size Normalized Least Mean Square (VSSNLMS)-based predictor, with low computational complexity in comparison with others in literatures, is derived for the implementation of the CIR predictor module of the DDCE scheme. A novel iterative receiver structure for the FDPM-based Decision Directed Channel Estimation scheme is also designed for SISO-OFDM Systems. The iterative idea is based on Turbo iterative principle. It is shown that improvement in the performance can be achieved with the iterative DDCE scheme for OFDM system in comparison with the non iterative scheme. Lastly, an iterative receiver structure for FDPM-based DDCE scheme earlier designed for SISO OFDM is extended to MIMO-OFDM Systems. In addition, Variable Step Size Normalized Least Mean Square (VSSNLMS)-based channel transfer function estimator is derived in the context of MIMO Channel for the implementation of the CTF estimator module of the iterative Decision Directed Channel Estimation scheme for MIMO-OFDM Systems in place of linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. The VSSNLMS-based channel transfer function estimator is found to show improved MSE performance of about -4 MSE (dB) at SNR of 5dB in comparison with linear MMSE-based channel transfer function estimator.Item Multiple antenna systems : channel capacity and low-density parity-check codes.(2005) Byers, Geoffrey James.; Takawira, Fambirai.The demand for high data rate wireless communication systems is evident today as indicated by the rapid growth in wireless subscribers and services. High data rate systems are bandwidth intensive but bandwidth is an expensive and scarce commodity. The ability of future wireless systems to efficiently utilise the available bandwidth is therefore integral to their progress and development. The wireless communications channel is a harsh environment where time varying multipath fading, noise and interference from other users and systems all contribute to the corruption of the received signal. It is difficult to overcome these problems and achieve the high data rates required using single antenna technology. Multiple-input-multipleoutput (MIMO) systems have recently emerged as a promising technique for achieving very large bandwidth efficiencies in wireless channels. Such a system employs multiple antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver. These systems exploit the spatial dimension of the wireless channel to achieve significant gains in terms of capacity and reliability over single antenna systems and consequently achieve high data rates. MIMO systems are currently being considered for 3rd generations cellular systems. The performance of MIMO systems is heavily dependent on the environment in which the system is utilised. For this reason a realistic channel model is essential for understanding the performance of these systems. Recent studies on the capacity of MIMO channels have focused on the effect of spatial correlation but the joint effect of spatial and temporal correlation has not been well studied. The first part of this thesis proposes a new spatially and temporally correlated MIMO channel model which considers motion of the receiver and nonisotropic scattering at both ends of the radio link. The outage capacity of this channel is examined where the effects of antenna spacing, array angle, degree of scattering and receiver motion are investigated. It is shown that the channel capacity still increases linearly with the number of transmit and receive antennas, despite the presence of both spatial and temporal correlation. The capacity of MIMO channels is generally investigated by simulation. Where analytical expressions have been considered for spatially correlated channels, only bounds or approximations have been used. In this thesis closed form analytical expressions are derived for the ergodic capacity of MIMO channels for the cases of spatial correlation at one end and both ends of the radio link. The latter does not lend itself to numerical integration but the former is shown to be accurate by comparison with simulation results. The proposed analysis is also very general as it is based on the transmit and receive antenna correlation matrices. Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have recently been rediscovered and have been shown to approach the Shannon limit and even outperform turbo codes for long block lengths. Non-binary LDPC codes have demonstrated improved performance over binary LDPC codes in the AWGN channel. Methods to optimise non-binary LDPC codes have not been well developed where only simulation based approaches have been employed, which are not very efficient. For this reason, a new approach is proposed which is based on extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. It is demonstrated that by performing curve matching on the EXIT chart, good non-binary LDPC codes can be designed for the AWGN channel. In order to approach the theoretical capacity of MIMO channels, many space-time coded, multiple antenna (MA) systems have been considered in the literature. These systems merge channel coding and antenna diversity and exploit the benefits of both. Binary LDPC codes have demonstrated good performance in MA systems but nonbinary LDPC codes have not been considered. Therefore, the application of non-binary LDPC codes to MA systems is investigated where the codes are optimised for the system of interest, using a simulation and EXIT chart based design approach. It is shown that non-binary LDPC codes achieve a small gain in performance over binary LDPC codes in MA systems.Item A semi-empirical formulation for determination of rain attenuation on terrestrial radio links.(2010) Odedina, Modupe Olubunmi.; Afullo, Thomas Joachim Odhiambo.Advances in today’s fast growing communication systems have resulted in congestion in the lower frequency bands and the need for higher capacity broadband services. This has made it inevitable for service providers to migrate to higher frequency bands so as to accommodate the ever increasing demands on radio communication systems. However, the reliability of such systems at these frequency bands tend to be severely degraded due to some natural atmospheric phenomena of which rain is the dominant factor. This is not to say that other factors have become unimportant; however, if attenuation by rain is so severe that a radio link is unavailable for use, then other factors become secondary. Therefore, it is paramount to establish a model capable of predicting the behaviour of these systems in the presence of rain. This study employs a semi-empirical approach for the formulation of rain attenuation models using the knowledge of rain rate, raindrop size distribution, and a signal level measurement recorded at 19.5 GHz on a horizontally polarized terrestrial radio link. The semi-empirical approach was developed by considering the scattering effect of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a medium containing raindrops. The complex forward scattering amplitudes for the raindrops are determined for all raindrop sizes at different frequencies, utilizing the Mie scattering theory on spherical dielectric raindrops. From these scattering amplitudes, the extinction cross-sections for the spherical raindrops are calculated. Applying the power-law regression to the real part of the calculated extinction cross-section, power-law coefficients are determined at different frequencies. The power-law model generated from the extinction crosssection is integrated over different raindrop-size distribution models to formulate theoretical rain attenuation models. The developed rain attenuation models are used with 0.01 R rain rate statistics determined for four locations in different rain climatic zones in South Africa to calculate the specific rain attenuation. From a horizontally polarized 6.73 km terrestrial line-of-sight link in Durban, South Africa,experimental rain attenuation measurements were recorded at 19.5 GHz. These rain attenuation measurements are compared with the results obtained from the developed attenuation models with the same propagation parameters to establish the most appropriate attenuation models that describe the behaviour of radio link performance in the presence of rain. For the purpose of validating the results, it is compared with the ITU-R rain attenuation model. This study also considers the characteristics and variations associated with rain attenuation for terrestrial communication systems. This is achieved by utilizing the ITU-R power-law rain attenuation model on 5-year rain rate data obtained from the four different climatic rain zones in South Africa to estimate the cumulative distributions of rain attenuation. From the raindrop size and 1-minute rain rate measurement recorded in Durban with a distrometer over six months, rain events over the six months are classified into drizzle, widespread, shower and thunderstorm rain types and the mean rain rate statistics determined for each class of rain. Drop-size distribution for all the rain types is estimated. This research has shown a statistical analysis of rain fade data and proposed an empirical rain attenuation model for South Africa localities. This work has also drawn out theoretical rain attenuation prediction models based on the assumption that the shapes of raindrops are spherical. The results predicted from these theoretical attenuation models have shown that it is not the raindrop shapes that determine the attenuation due to rain, but the raindrop size distribution and the rain rate content in the drops. This thesis also provides a good interpretation of cumulative rain attenuation distribution on seasonal and monthly basis. From these distributions, appropriate figures of fade margin are derived for various percentages of link availability in South Africa.Item Clear-air radioclimatological modeling for terrestrial line of sight links in Southern Africa.(2010) Kemi, Odedina Peter.; Afullo, Thomas Joachim Odhiambo.This thesis has investigated radioclimatological study in a clear-air environment as applicable to terrestrial line of sight link design problems. Radioclimatological phenomena are adequately reviewed both for the precipitation effect and clear-air effect. The research focuses more on the clear-air effect of radioclimatological studies. Two Southern African countries chosen for case study in the report are Botswana and South Africa. To this end, radiosonde data gathered in Maun, Botswana and Durban, South Africa are used for model formulation and verification. The data used in the thesis ranges from three years to ten years in these two stations. Three to ten years of refractivity data gathered in Botswana and South Africa is used for the model formulation. On the other hand, eight months signal level measurement data recorded from the terrestrial line of sight link set up between Howard College and Westville Campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban South Africa is used for model verification. Though various radioclimatic parameters could affect radio signal propagation in the clear-air environment, this report focuses on two of these parameters. These two parameters are the geoclimatic factor and effective earth radius factor (k-factor). The first parameter is useful for multipath fading determination while the second parameter is very important for diffraction fading, modeling and characterization. The two countries chosen have different terrain and topographical structures; thus further underlying the choice for these two parameters. While Maun in Botswana is a gentle flat terrain, Durban in South Africa is characterized by hilly and mountainous terrain structure, which thus affects radioclimatological modeling in the two countries. Two analytical models have been proposed to solve clear-air radioclimatic problems in Southern Africa in the thesis. The first model is the fourth order polynomial analytical expression while the second model is the parabolic equation. The fourth order polynomial model was proposed after an extensive analysis of the eight month signal level measurement data gathered in Durban, South Africa. This model is able to predict the fade exceedance probabilities as a function of fade depth level. The result from the fourth order polynomial model is found to be comparable with other established multipath propagation model reviewed in the thesis. Availability of more measurement data in more location will be necessary in future to further refine this model. The second model proposed to solve clear-air propagation problem in the thesis is the modified parabolic equation. We chose this technique because of its strength and its simplistic adaptation to terrestrial line of sight link design problem. This adaptation is possible because, the parabolic equation can be modified to incorporate clear-air parameters. Hence this modification of the parabolic equation allows the possibility of a hybrid technique that incorporates both the statistical and mathematical procedures perfectly into one single process. As a result of this, most of the very important phenomena in clear-air propagation such as duct occurrence probabilities, diffraction fading and multipath fading is captured by this technique. The standard parabolic equation (SPE) is the unmodified parabolic equation which only accounts for free space propagation, while the modified parabolic equation (MPE) is the modified version of the parabolic equation. The MPE is classified into two in the thesis: the first modified parabolic equation (MPE1) and second modified parabolic equation (MPE2). The MPE1 is designed to incorporate the geoclimatic factor which is intended to study the multipath fading effect in the location of study. On the other hand, MPE2 is the modified parabolic equation designed to incorporate the effective earth radius factor (k-factor) intended to study the diffraction fading in the location of study. The results and analysis of the results after these modifications confirm our expectation. This result shows that signal loss is due primarily to diffraction fading in Durban while in Botswana, signal loss is due primarily to multipath. This confirms our expectation since a flatter terrain attracts signal loss due to multipath while hilly terrain attracts signal loss due to diffraction fading.Item Combined turbo coding and interference rejection for DS-CDMA.(2004) Bejide, Emmanuel Oluremi.; Takawira, Fambirai.This dissertation presents interference cancellation techniques for both the Forward Error Correction (FEC) coded and the uncoded Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) systems. Analytical models are also developed for the adaptive and the non-adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (PlC) receivers. Results that are obtained from the computer simulations of the PlC receiver types confirm the accuracy of the analytical models that are developed. Results show that the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm based adaptive PlC receivers have bit error rate performances that are better than those of the non-adaptive PlC receivers. In the second part of this dissertation, a novel iterative multiuser detector for the Turbo coded DS-CDMA system is developed. The performance of the proposed receiver in the multirate CDMA system is also investigated. The developed receiver is found to have an error rate performance that is very close to the single user limit after a few numbers of iterations. The receiver is also resilient against the near-far effect. A methodology is also presented on the use of the Gaussian approximation method in the convergence analysis of iterative interference cancellation receivers for turbo coded DS-CDMA systems.Item Performance analysis of signalling system No. 7 networks during signalling transfer point congestion.(2002) Chana, Amish Harkisan.; Takawira, Fambirai.The growth of mobile networks and the imminent deployment of third generation networks and services will require signalling networks to maintain their integrity during increased unanticipated traffic volumes. As signalling networks become larger and more complex, an analysis ofprotocol operation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the current protocol implementation and to evaluate the applicability of the proposed enhancements. The objective of this study ,is to develop analytical models to analyse the impact of Signalling Transfer Point congestion on network performance when simple message discard schemes are used as the primary flow control mechanism, and to investigate suitable congestion and flow control mechanisms to help alleviate the congestion. Unlike previous studies, that are localised and only concentrate on the nodes around the congested entity, the models presented here examine the impact of network wide and focused overloads on the entire network. The study considers both the fixed-line and mobile network environments, and analyses the performance of the ISDN User Part and Mobile Application Part protocols. The call completion rate and location update success rate are used to measure performance, instead of message throughput, since these parameters provide a more appropriate measure of the grade-of-service and more accurately reflect the level of service provided to a customer. The steady state equilibrium models, derived here, can be used to quickly estimate the safe operating regions of a signalling network, while the transient models provide a more intuitive perspective of the traffic processes that lead to congestion . Furthermore, these models can be used to examine the network performance for different message priority schemes, routing algorithms, overload scenarios and network configurations. The performance of various congestion control mechanisms that incorporate non-linear throttling schemes is also evaluated, together with an examination of the impact of congestion on multiple user parts in a mobile network environment. Message priority schemes are found to offer little or no advantage in a fixed network environment, but in a mobile network they can be used to maintain the network's performance at an optimum level during periods of overload. Network performance is also improved if congestion controls block load-generating traffic at the initial onset of congestion and then gradually restore traffic as the performance improves .Item Constant modulus based blind adaptive multiuser detection.(2004) Whitehead, James Bruce.; Takawira, Fambirai.Signal processing techniques such as multi user detection (MUD) have the capability of greatly enhancing the performance and capacity of future generation wireless communications systems. Blind adaptive MUD's have many favourable qualities and their application to OS-COMA systems has attracted a lot of attention. The constant modulus algorithm is widely deployed in blind channel equalizations applications. The central premise of this thesis is that the constant modulus cost function is very suitable for the purposes of blind adaptive MUD for future generation wireless communications systems. To prove this point, the adaptive performance of blind (and non-blind) adaptive MUD's is derived analytically for all the schemes that can be made to fit the same generic structure as the constant modulus scheme. For the first time, both the relative and absolute performance levels of the different adaptive algorithms are computed, which gives insights into the performance levels of the different blind adaptive MUD schemes, and demonstrates the merit of the constant modulus based schemes. The adaptive performance of the blind adaptive MUD's is quantified using the excess mean square error (EMSE) as a metric, and is derived for the steady-state, tracking, and transient stages of the adaptive algorithms. If constant modulus based MUD's are suitable for future generation wireless communications systems, then they should also be capable of suppressing multi-rate DS-COMA interference and also demonstrate the ability to suppress narrow band interference (NBI) that arises in overlay systems. Multi-rate DS-COMA provides the capability of transmitting at various bit rates and quality of service levels over the same air interface. Limited spectrum availability may lead to the implementation of overlay systems whereby wide-band COMA signal are collocated with existing narrow band services. Both overlay systems and multi-rate DS-COMA are important features of future generation wireless communications systems. The interference patterns generated by both multi-rate OS-COMA and digital NBI are cyclostationary (or periodically time varying) and traditional MUD techniques do not take this into account and are thus suboptimal. Cyclic MUD's, although suboptimal, do however take the cyclostationarity of the interference into account, but to date there have been no cyclic MUD's based on the constant modulus cost function proposed. This thesis thus derives novel, blind adaptive, cyclic MUD's based on the constant modulus cost function, for direct implementation on the FREquency SHift (FRESH) filter architecture. The FRESH architecture provides a modular and thus flexible implementation (in terms of computational complexity) of a periodically time varying filter. The operation of the blind adaptive MUD on these reduced complexity architectures is also explored.· The robustness of the new cyclic MUD is proven via a rigorous mathematical proof. An alternate architecture to the FRESH filter is the filter bank. Using the previously derived analytical framework for the adaptive performance of MUD's, the relative performance of the adaptive algorithms on the FRESH and filter bank architectures is examined. Prior to this thesis, no conclusions could be drawn as to which architecture would yield superior performance. The performance analysis of the adaptive algorithms is also extended in this thesis in order to consider the effects of timing jitrer at the receiver, signature waveform mismatch, and other pertinent issues that arise in realistic implementation scenarios. Thus, through a careful analytical approach, which is verified by computer simulation results, the suitability of constant modulus based MUD's is established in this thesis.Item A MAC protocol for wireless networks with QoS guarantees.(2002) Majoor, Richard James.; Takawira, Fambirai.Mobile communications are becoming integrated into society at an explosive rate. While 2nd generation (2G) systems limit the user to basic services such as voice and low-bit rate data, 3G networks are characterized by their ability to accommodate wideband multi-media traffic with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. In the design of a system the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer is responsible for multiplexing heterogeneous traffic onto a common transmission link and its design is critical to the overall performance of a system. A number of MAC protocols for wireless networks have been proposed in the literature - the majority having time division multiple access (TDMA) at the MAC layer. However in 3G systems there is a trend towards the use of code division multiple access (CDMA) due to its proven advantages in a wireless environment. Although several papers on CDMA based MAC protocols have been published, virtually none of them tackle the analysis aspect of the protocols. Those papers that do perform analyses of CDMA protocols don't often consider heterogeneous traffic, and even fewer support QoS. The thesis addresses these shortcomings by proposing a MAC protocol that supports QoS in the form of Bit Error Rate (BER) and packet delay guarantees. The thesis begins by giving an overview of proposed wireless ATM and 3G CDMA protocols and then details how power control may be used to support BER guarantees. Various Markov based analyses are presented along with Monte-Carlo Simulations. An Equilibrium Point Analysis is then performed and the work discusses how such analyses are generally infeasible for systems supporting heterogeneous traffic. After an overview of conventional scheduling algorithms the thesis proceeds to outline a novel approach by which delay guarantees may be offered using packet dropping rates as the QoS metric. Using a stochastic source model as opposed to the conventional leaky bucket traffic regulator the thesis diverges significantly from conventional literature. The thesis also details how to calculate the probability of QoS violation and concludes with suggestions on further research avenues. As a whole the work is unique in its approach to analyse heterogeneous traffic and the methods it uses to construct session admission zones for QoS guarantees.Item Optimized digital signal processing algorithms applied to radio communications.(1992) Carter, Alan James Auchmuty.; Broadhurst, Anthony D.The application of digital signal processing to radio communications has come of age with the advent of low power, high speed microprocessors and over the past five years, various transceiver architectures, utilizing this new technology have been extensively researched. Due to the flexible nature of a software based transceiver, a myriad of possible applications exist and currently the emphasis is on the development of suitable algorithms. The principal aim of this research is the derivation of optimized digital signal processing algorithms applicable to three separate areas of radio communications. Optimized, as used by the author within this dissertation, implies a reasonable compromise between performance, complexity and numerical processing efficiency. This compromise is necessary since the algorithms are applied to a portable transceiver where power consumption, size and weight are limited. The digital signal processing algorithms described by this research is as follows:- 1. The derivation and assessment of a multirate speech amplitude modulation demodulator which exhibits low distortion (typically less than 2%) for a wide range of modulation indices, carrier frequency offsets and deviations. The demodulator is processing efficient and requires only five multiplications and five decisions for every output sample. 2. The derivation and assessment of a low sampling rate speech frequency modulation demodulator for signals whose bandwidth exceed quarter the sampling frequency. The demodulator exhibits low distortion (typically less than 2%) and is processing efficient requiring eighteen multiplications and three decisions for every output sample. 3. The derivation and assessment of a multirate single-sideband suppressed carrier automatic frequency control system which is a combination of a simple second order adaptive line enhancer and a digital phase-locked loop. The processing efficient automatic frequency control system is suited for low signal to noise power conditions, in both stationary and mobile communication channels.Item Neural networks and early fast Doppler for prediction in meteor-burst communications systems.(1994) Fraser, David Douglas.; Broadhurst, Anthony D.In meteor-burst communications systems, the channel is bursty with a continuously fluctuating signal-to-noise ratio. Adaptive data rate systems attempt to use the channel more optimally by varying the bit rate. Current adaptive rate systems use a method of closed-loop decision-feedback to control the transmitted data rate. It is proposed that an open-loop adaptive data rate system without a decision feedback path may be possible using implicit channel information carried in the first few milliseconds of the link establishment probe signal. The system would have primary application in low-cost half-duplex telemetry systems. It is shown that the key elements in such a system would be channel predictors. The development of these predictors is the focus of this research. Two novel methods of predicting channel parameters are developed. The first utilises early fast Doppler information that precedes many long duration, large signal-to-noise-ratio overdense trails. The presence of early fast Doppler at the trail commencement is used as a toggle to operate at a higher data rate. Factors influencing the use of early fast Doppler for this purpose are also presented. The second method uses artificial neural networks. Data measured during trail formation is processed and presented to the neural networks for prediction of trail parameters. Several successful neural networks are presented which predict trail type, underdense or overdense, and peak trail amplitude from the first 50ms of the trail's lifetime. This method allows better estimation of the developing trail. This fact can be used to implement a multi-rate open-loop adaptive data rate system.Item A CAD tool for the prediction of VLSI interconnect reliability.(1988) Frost, David Frank.; Poole, Kelvin F.This thesis proposes a new approach to the design of reliable VLSI interconnects, based on predictive failure models embedded in a software tool for reliability analysis. A method for predicting the failure rate of complex integrated circuit interconnects subject to electromigration, is presented. This method is based on the principle of fracturing an interconnect pattern into a number of statistically independent conductor segments. Five commonly-occurring segment types are identified: straight runs, steps resulting from a discontinuity in the wafer surface, contact windows, vias and bonding pads. The relationship between median time-to-failure (Mtf) of each segment and physical dimensions, temperature and current density are determined. This model includes the effect of time-varying current density. The standard deviation of lifetime is also determined as a function of dimensions. A· minimum order statistical method is used to compute the failure rate of the interconnect system. This method, which is applicable to current densities below 106 AI cm2 , combines mask layout and simulation data from the design data base with process data to calculate failure rates. A suite of software tools called Reliant (RELIability Analyzer for iNTerconnects) which implements the algorithms described above, is presented. Reliant fractures a conductor pattern into segments and extracts electrical equivalent circuits for each segment. The equivalent circuits are used in conjunction with a modified version of the SPICE circuit simulator to determine the currents in all segments and to compute reliability. An interface to a data base query system provides the capability to access reliability data interactively. The performance of Reliant is evaluated, based on two CMOS standard cell layouts. Test structures for the calibration of the reliability models are provided. Reliant is suitable for the analysis of leaf cells containing a few hundred transistors. For MOS VLSI circuits, an alternative approach based on the use of an event-driven switch-level simulator is presented.Item An Analytic model for high electron mobility transistors.(1986) Hill, Adrian John.; Nattrass, Henry Lee.The last six years has seen the emergence and rapid development of a new type of field effect transistor, the High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT), which offers improved performance in both digital and analogue circuits compared with circuits incorporating either MEtal Semiconductor (MES) or Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) FETs. A new physically-based analytic model for HEMTs, which predicts the DC and RF electrical performance from the material and structural parameters of the device, is presented. The efficacy of the model is demonstrated with comparisons between simulated and measured device characteristics, at DC and microwave frequencies. The good agreement with experiment obtained with the model indicates that velocity overshoot effects are considerably less important in HEMTs than has been widely assumed, and that the electron transit velocity in submicron devices is approximately 10 cm/s, rather than around 2x10 cm/s. The Inverted HEMT, one of the major HEMT structural variants, is emphasized throughout this work because of its potential advantages over other variants, and practical results from 0.5 micron gate length Inverted HEMTs are presented.Item Computer-aided design of RF MOSFET power amplifiers.(1992) Hoile, Gary Alec.; Reader, H. C.The process of designing high power RF amplifiers has in the past relied heavily on measurements, in conjunction with simple linear theory. With the advent of the harmonic balance method and increasingly faster computers, CAD techniques can be of great value in designing these nonlinear circuits. Relatively little work has been done in modelling RF power MOSFETs. The methods described in numerous papers for the nonlinear modelling of microwave GaAsFETs cannot be applied easily to these high power devices. This thesis describes a modelling procedure applicable to RF MOSFETs rated at over 100 W. This is achieved by the use of cold S parameters and pulsed drain current measurements taken at controlled temperatures. A method of determining the required device thermal impedance is given. A complete nonlinear equivalent circuit model is extracted for an MRF136 MOSFET, a 28 V, 15 W device. This includes two nonlinear capacitors. An equation is developed to describe accurately the drain current as a function of the internal gate and drain voltages. The model parameters are found by computer optimisation with measured data. Techniques for modelling the passive components in RF power amplifiers are given. These include resistors, inductors, capacitors, and ferrite transformers. Although linear ferrite transformer models are used, nonlinear forms are also investigated. The accuracy of the MOSFET model is verified by comparison to large signal measurements in a 50 0 system. A complete power amplifier using the MRF136, operating from 118 MHz to 175 MHz is built and analysed. The accuracy of predictions is generally within 10 % for output power and DC supply current, and around 30 % for input impedance. An amplifier is designed using the CAD package, and then built, requiring only a small final adjustment of the input matching circuit. The computer based methods described lead quickly to a near-optimal design and reduce the need for extensive high power measurements. The use of nonlinear analysis programs is thus established as a valuable design tool for engineers working with RF power amplifiers.Item Travelling-wave frequency conversion.(1985) Ham, Ronald Edgar.; Nattrass, Henry Lee.Travelling-wave distributed amplifiers are providing gain over broad frequency ranges for microwave applications. Similar concepts are applicable to distributed mixers and, with the use of controlled feedback, to a multifunction component simultaneously emulating a mixer, amplifier and an oscillator. The concept of this new travelling-wave frequency converter is introduced and data for a discrete component test circuit is presented. To facilitate the converter operation a new three-port travelling-wave mixer is introduced and characterized. Four-port scattering and wave scattering transformations are derived as a method of analysis of the four-port distributed structure. This enables sequential circuit analysis on a small computer. Practical applications unique to the advanced automatic network analyser, including time domain measurements, are presented to characterize test circuits as well as to develop ancillary equipment such as a transistor test fixture. Automated error corrected transistor measurements and de-embedding are also discussed. A piecewise linear quantum mechanical method of modelling the conduction channel of a short gate field effect transistor is given to aid the extrapolation of the distributed frequency converter concept to submicron and heterojunction structures.Item Cross-layer design for the transmission of multimedia traffic over fading channels.(2009) Quazi, Tahmid Al-Mumit.; Xu, Hongjun.Providing guarantees in the Quality of Service (QoS) has become essential to the transmission of multimedia traffic over wireless links with fading channels. However this poses significant challenges due to the variable nature of such channels and the diverse QoS requirements of different applications including voice, video and data. The benefits of dynamic adaptation to system and channel conditions have been accepted, but the true potential of optimized adaptation is lost if the layers operate independently, ignoring possible interdependencies between them. Cross-layer design mechanisms exploit such interdependencies to provide QoS guarantees for the transmission of multimedia traffic over fading channels. Channel adaptive M-QAM schemes are examples of some of the earliest works in the area of cross-layer design. However, many of the original schemes use the assumption that thresholds designed for AWGN channels can be directly applied to slow-fading channels. The thresholds are calculated with a commonly used approximation bit error rate (BER) expression and the first objective of the thesis was to study the accuracy of this commonly used expression in fading channels. It is shown that that the inaccuracy of the expression makes it unsuitable for use in the calculation of the threshold points for an adaptive M-QAM system over fading channels. An alternative BER expression is then derived which is shown to be far more accurate than the previous one. The improved accuracy is verified through simulations of the system over Nakagami-m fading channels. Many of the cross-layer adaptation mechanisms that address the QoS provisioning problem only use the lower layers (physical and data link) and few explore the possibility of using higher layers. As a result, restrictions are placed on the system which introduces functional limitations such as the inability to insert more than one class of traffic in a physical layer frame. The second objective in this thesis was to design a physical and application layer cross-layer adaptation mechanism which overcomes this limitation. The performance results of the scheme in both AWGN and fading channels show that the cross-layer mechanism can be efficiently utilized for the purposes of providing error rate QoS guarantees for multimedia traffic transmissions over wireless links.Item Protocols for voice/data integration in a CDMA packet radio network.(1999) Judge, Garth.; Takawira, Fambirai.Wireless cellular communications is witnessing a rapid growth in, and demand for, improved technology and range of information types and services. Future third generation cellular networks are expected to provide mobile users with ubiquitous wireless access to a global backbone architecture that carries a wide variety of electronic services. This thesis examines the topic of multiple access protocols and models suitable for modem third-generation wireless networks. The major part of this thesis is based on a proposed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for a Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) data packet radio network, as CDMA technology is proving to be a promising and attractive approach for spectrally efficient, economical and high quality digital communications wireless networks. The proposed MAC policy considers a novel dual CDMA threshold model based on the Multiple Access Interference (MAl) capacity of the system. This protocol is then extended to accommodate a mixed voice/data traffic network in which variable length data messages share a common CDMA channel with voice users, and where the voice activity factor of human speech is exploited to improve the data network performance. For the protocol evaluation, the expected voice call blocking probability, expected data throughput and expected data message delay are considered, for both a perfect channel and a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. In particular, it is shown that a significant performance enhancement can be made over existing admission policies through the implementation of a novel, dynamic, load-dependent blocking threshold in conjunction with a fixed CDMA multiple access threshold that is based on the maximum acceptable level of MAl.Item The analysis, simulation and testing of an experimental travelling- wave tube.(1994) Reynolds, Christopher Garth.; Nattrass, Henry Lee.As a design and analysis aid for the development of an experimental TWT, a computer program is written which allows the small-signal gain to be computed for various operating conditions, such as various conditions of tube bias (beam voltage and current) and frequency. In order to arrive at a value for the gain, a number of parameters need first to be defined or calculated. Using the method (Approach II) of Jain and Basu [17] which is applicable to a helix with a free-space gap between it and circular dielectric support rods surrounded by a metal shell, the dielectric loading factor (DLF) for the structure is found and the dispersion relation then solved to obtain the radial propagation constant y and axial propagation constant B. The method is tested for a helix with measured data and found to be acceptably accurate. Helix losses are calculated for the low-loss input and output sections of the helix, using the procedures developed by Gilmour et al [14,18], from which values are found for the helix loss parameter d. Another value for d, obviously much larger, is also found for the lossy attenuator section of the helix. Here measured data for the attenuator is used as a basis for a polynomial which models the attenuator loss as a function of frequency. The Pierce gain parameter C is found using the well-known equations of Pierce [21,22,26], and then the space-charge parameter Q. Here knowledge of the space-charge reduction factor F is required to find Q, and a simple non-iterative method is presented for its calculation, with some results. From the other parameters already calculated the velocity parameter, b, is then found. since sufficient information is now available, the electronic equations are solved. These equations are in a modified form, better accounting for the effects of space-charge than the well-known standard forms. Results are compared and slight differences found to exist in the computed gain. Now that the x's and y's (respectively the real and imaginary parts of the complex propagation constants for the slow and fast space-charge waves) are known the launching loss can be calculated. Launching losses are found for the three space-charge waves, not just for the gaining wave. The gain of the TWT is not found from the asymptotic gain equation but from a model which includes the effects of internal feedback due to reflections at the ports and attenuator. Values of reflection coefficients are modelled on the results of time-domain measurements (attenuator) and found by calculation (ports). This model permits the unstable behaviour of the tube to be predicted for various conditions of beam current and voltage and anticipates the frequencies at which instability would be likely. Results from simulations are compared with experimental observations. The need to pulse the experimental tube under controlled conditions led to the development of a high-voltage solid state pulse modulator providing regulated output pulses of up to 5000V and 200mA directly, without the use of transformers. The pulse modulator design embodies two unusual features a) its operation is bipolar, delivering positive or negative output pulses, depending only on the polarity of the rectifier input, and b) the use of multiple regulating loops and stacked pass elements to achieve high-voltage operation. Some results are presented.Item Hybrid token-CDMA MAC protocol for wireless networks.(2009) Liu, Yi-Sheng.; Takawira, Fambirai.; Xu, Hongjun.Ad hoc networks are commonly known to implement IEEE 802.11 standard as their medium access control (MAC) protocol. It is well known that token passing MAC schemes outperform carrier-sense-multiple-access (CSMA) schemes, therefore, token passing MAC protocols have gained popularity in recent years. In recent years, the research extends the concept of token passing ' scheme to wireless settings since they have the potential of achieving higher channel utilization than CSMA type schemes. In this thesis, a hybrid Token-CDMA MAC protocol that is based on a token passing scheme with the incorporation of code division multiple access (CDMA) is introduced. Using a dynamic code distribution algorithm and a modified leaky-bucket policing system, the hybrid protocol is able to provide both Quality of Service (QoS) and high network resource utilization, while ensuring the stability of a network. This thesis begins with the introduction of a new MAC protocol based on a token-passing strategy. The input traffic model used in the simulation is a two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP). The data rate QoS is enforced by implementing a modified leaky bucket mechanism in the proposed MAC scheme. The simulation also takes into account channel link errors caused by the wireless link by implementing a multi-layered Gilbert-Elliot model. The performance of the proposed MAC scheme is examined by simulation, and compared to the performance of other MAC protocols published in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid MAC scheme is effective in decreasing packet delay and significantly shortens the length of the queue. The thesis continues with the discussion of the analytical model for the hybrid Token CDMA protocol. The proposed MAC scheme is analytically modelled as a multiserver multiqueue (MSMQ) system with a gated service discipline. The analytical model is categorized into three sections viz. the vacation model, the input model and the buffer model. The throughput and delay performance are then computed and shown to closely match the simulation results. Lastly, cross-layer optimization between the physical (PHY) and MAC layers for the hybrid token-CDMA scheme is discussed. The proposed joint PHY -MAC approach is based on the interaction between the two layers in order to enable the stations to dynamically adjust the transmission parameters resulting in reduced mutual interference and optimum system performance.Item Modelling and testing microwave magnetrons.(1988) Schumann, Erwin Wilhelm.; Nattrass, Henry Lee.Though declining in popularity over the last decade, the magnetron still has applications where portable high power is needed. This study examines the predicted performance of cylindrical microwave magnetrons using analytic lumped-spoke models based on the energy conservation principle. The analytic approach is still favoured when small computer systems are used and the overall performance of the tube is to be predicted. The magnetron elements are examined and the role they play in the overall device performance analysed. Simplified representations of these elements are used to construct a complete magnetron model. The Hartree threshold condition is reexamined and a new, more accurate analytic formulation proposed. This formulation is based on electric field strengths at the base of the magnetron spoke. The effect of the space charge on the threshold condition is included. Spoke current has been evaluated at the edge of the Brillouin hub. The resulting anode- cathode voltage performance predictions are consistent with measured results. A computer program has been written to analyse the performance predicted by this model. Models proposed by other authors are examined, and compared to this model. The resulting model has been tested by comparing predicted results to the measured performance of four slot-and-hole magnetrons. To facilitate accurate magnetron testing, a new automated triple-stub high power microwave load has been developed. The load operates at a peak power of IMW from 2,7-3,OGHZ, and allows the change of the VSWR to any value along any path within the VSWR=I, 5: I circle. The development of the triple tuner and termination is discussed in detail. A new waterload configuration which has the advantage of simple construction yet good matching characteristics is presented. Automated measurement of pulling figure and construction of Rieke diagrams is discussed. The accuracy of the complete load is compared to conventional loads currently in service in the tube industry.