Adoption and use of electronic instructional media among academics in selected universities in South West Nigeria.
Alabi, Adefunke Olanike.
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This study was conducted to determine the adoption and use of electronic instructional media among academics in selected universities in South West Nigeria. The study addressed the following research questions: What is the extent of adoption and use of electronic instructional media in selected Nigerian universities? What factors influence adoption and use of electronic instructional media? How do media literacy skills influence adoption and use of electronic instructional media? What is the moderating effect of gender, age and teaching experience on adoption and use of electronic instructional media? What challenges are faced in the adoption and use of electronic instructional media by academics in selected Nigerian universities? The Unified Theory of Technology Acceptance and Use (UTAUT) and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory were used as the underpinning theoretical lens. The philosophical perspective was based on post-positivism. Quantitative, complemented by qualitative methods were used with the survey research design. The target population of the study consisted of academics and management staff from two purposively selected Nigerian universities in the South West geopolitical zone. Academics were drawn from the faculties of Science, Arts and Technology in the universities that made up this study. From a population of 732 academics, a sample size of 267 was determined using a published table for selecting sample sizes as put forth by Israel (1992). Additionally, the census method was used to reach 11 university management staff members comprising deans of faculties, the university librarians and directors of the Centre for Information and Technology units. The survey questionnaires were used mainly to collect quantitative data from academics while interviews were used to collect qualitative data from university management staff. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was computed using Cronbach’s alpha (α) through a test-retest reliability method. A Cronbach’s alpha (α) value of r = 0.96 was obtained. Response rates of 80.5% and 90.9% were obtained from the data collected through quantitative and qualitative methods respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 21) to generate descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data was processed using the NVivo 10 package. The ethical aspect or the axiological component of this study was achieved by adhering to the ethical protocol of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Permission was obtained from the relevant authorities of the universities which fell under the ambit of this study. The findings revealed that though academics had adopted various types of electronic instructional media, this did not necessarily translate into extensive usage of such electronic instructional media. The majority of academics, however, regularly pursued innovative ways to incorporate electronic instructional media into their lectures. The findings further showed that academics used personal computers, MS Word, Internet, e- mail, mobile phones, mobile devices, Web resources, e-books and power-point presentations on a daily basis for teaching purposes. Academics used these electronic instructional media mainly for preparing lecture notes, presentation of lectures, producing assignments, course manuals, and communicating with students and colleagues. The findings also revealed that use of electronic instructional media such as LMS, plagiarism software, interactive whiteboard and social networking sites for teaching purposes was yet to be entrenched among Nigerian academics. The findings showed that facilitating conditions and effort expectancy were the strongest factors influencing adoption and use of electronic instructional media by academics for teaching purposes. The findings showed a significant relationship between media literacy skills and adoption and use of electronic instructional media. Gender and teaching experience, as moderating variables, influenced the adoption and use of electronic instructional media. Findings also revealed that behavioural intention was capable of explaining 8.6% of the variance in adoption and use of electronic instructional media. The study concluded that Nigerian academics are not using electronic instructional media as much as they should for the delivery of knowledge. The following recommendations were therefore proffered: 1) the universities need to develop a framework for the integration of electronic instruction media into the curriculum; 2) there is need to build capacity and create awareness among academics in relation to the integration of the interactive whiteboard, LMS and plagiarism software in their pedagogy; 3) universities are urged to develop institutional policy on adoption and use of electronic instructional media in order to provide clarity in areas such as as standards, strategies, best practices, staff training, infrastructural acquisition, gender equity and data/information security; 4) collaboration between faculty and subject librarians should be nurtured to create a vibrant and conducive academic and support environment that promote the use of electronic instructional media in teaching and learning. The originality and contribution of the study is situated in the domain of methodology, theory, practice and policy. For example in the area of methodology, this study’s point of departure from extant studies is that it employs the mixed method approach for data collection and stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the best predictor of technology adoption and use among academics. In this regard, the thesis makes a significant contribution towards developing a guideline for deploying instructional technology in universities or any educational setting. From the theoretical perspectives, the study validates UTAUT and DOI from the context of a developing country. The study, therefore, further advances the UTAUT and Roger’s diffusion of innovation theory in measuring the precursors of technology adoption and use in any contextual setting. With regard to practice and policy, the study provides an empirical baseline data that can be used as managerial guidelines for policy support, monitoring and evaluation in driving and promoting electronic instructional media adoption and use in Nigerian universities.