Gaussian mixture model classifiers for detection and tracking in UAV video streams.
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Manual visual surveillance systems are subject to a high degree of human-error and operator fatigue. The automation of such systems often employs detectors, trackers and classifiers as fundamental building blocks. Detection, tracking and classification are especially useful and challenging in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based surveillance systems. Previous solutions have addressed challenges via complex classification methods. This dissertation proposes less complex Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based classifiers that can simplify the process; where data is represented as a reduced set of model parameters, and classification is performed in the low dimensionality parameter-space. The specification and adoption of GMM based classifiers on the UAV visual tracking feature space formed the principal contribution of the work. This methodology can be generalised to other feature spaces. This dissertation presents two main contributions in the form of submissions to ISI accredited journals. In the first paper, objectives are demonstrated with a vehicle detector incorporating a two stage GMM classifier, applied to a single feature space, namely Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HoG). While the second paper demonstrates objectives with a vehicle tracker using colour histograms (in RGB and HSV), with Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) classifiers and a Kalman filter. The proposed works are comparable to related works with testing performed on benchmark datasets. In the tracking domain for such platforms, tracking alone is insufficient. Adaptive detection and classification can assist in search space reduction, building of knowledge priors and improved target representations. Results show that the proposed approach improves performance and robustness. Findings also indicate potential further enhancements such as a multi-mode tracker with global and local tracking based on a combination of both papers.