The adoption of Web 2.0 tools in teaching and learning by in-service secondary school teachers: the Mauritian context.
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With the current rapid increase in use of Web 2.0 tools by students, it is becoming necessary for teachers to understand what is happening in this social networking phenomenon, so that they can better understand the new spaces that students inhabit and the implications for students’ learning and investigate the wealth of available Web 2.0 tools, and work to incorporate some into their pedagogical and learning practices. Teachers are using the Internet and social networking tools in their personal lives. However, there is little empirical evidence on teachers’ viewpoints and usage of social media and other online technologies to support their classroom practice. This study stemmed from the urgent need to address this gap by exploring teachers’ perceptions, and experience of the integration of online technologies, social media, in their personal lives and for professional practice to find the best predictors of the possibility of teachers’ using Web 2.0 tools in their professional practice. Underpinning the study is a conceptual framework consisting of core ideas found in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and technology pedagogy and content knowledge (TPACK) models. The conceptual framework, together with a review of relevant literature, enabled the formulation of a theoretical model for understanding teachers’ intention to exploit the potential of Web 2.0 tools. The model was then further developed using a mixed-method, two-phase methodology. In the first phase, a survey instrument was designed and distributed to in-service teachers following a Postgraduate Certificate in Education course at the institution where the researcher works. Using the data collected from the survey, exploratory factor analysis, correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to refine the theoretical model. Other statistical methods were also used to gain further insights into teachers’ perceptions of use of Web 2.0 tools in their practices. In the second phase of the study, survey respondents were purposefully selected, based on quantitative results, to participate in interviews. The qualitative data yielded from the interviews was used to support and enrich understanding of the quantitative findings. The constructs teacher knowledge and technology pedagogy knowledge from the TPACK model and the constructs effort expectancy, facilitating conditions and performance expectancy are the best predictors of teachers’ intentions to use Web 2.0 tools in their professional practice. There was an interesting finding on the relationship between UTAUT and TPACK constructs. The constructs performance expectancy and effort expectancy had a significant relationship with all the TPACK constructs – technology knowledge, technology pedagogy knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technology and content knowledge and TPACK – except for content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. The association between the TPACK construct PCK with the UTAUT constructs performance expectancy and effort expectancy was an unexpected finding because PCK is only about PCK and has no technology component. The theoretical contribution of this study is the model, which is teachers’ intention of future use of Web 2.0 tools in their professional practice. The predictive model, together with other findings, enhances understanding of the nature of teachers’ intention to utilise Web 2.0 tools in their professional practice. Findings from this study have implications for school infrastructure, professional development of teachers and an ICT learning environment to support the adoption of Web 2.0 tools in teaching practices and are presented as guiding principles at the end of the study.