Biochemical-physical mechanisms of light-tissue interactions.
Buthelezi, Musawenkosi Doctor.
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Optical tissue phantom samples simulating the optical properties of the human prostates and brain tissues were fabricated. The experimental set-up was designed to be cost-effective but reliable, allowing for convenience in its usage and replication, making it ideal for biomedical optical measurements. Gel agar was the base material, and aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3 ) with black ink was employed as the scatter and absorber, respectively. The latter were mixed in various amounts into the gel agar to simulate the desired phantom tissues. Argon red laser and He-Ne green laser light, with wavelengths of 630 nm and 532 nm were incident on varying thicknesses of the phantom samples. The transmitted and incident light powers were measured to determine the scattering and absorption coefficients, from which the attenuation coefficients, penetration depth, and optical albedo were estimated. The optical penetration depths were found to be 0.30 for brain and 0.15 for prostate tissue phantoms. The fabricated tissues successfully mimicked the brain and prostate tissues, with µ a = 0.69 cm−1and µ a = 0.24 cm−1 absorption coefficients as well as 𝜇𝜇𝑠𝑠 = 1.73 cm−1 and µ s = 5.48 cm−1 scattering coefficients at 532 nm and 630 nm wavelengths, respectively. The optical albedo for brain phantom was found to be a = 0.71 and a = 0.96 for prostate phantom tissue. The results verify the reliability of the experimental technique and suitability of the fabricated tissues for use in biomedical, going forward, thus allowing for future work without the need for experimentally complex and expensive setups.