The proliferation of child marriages in Rushinga District, Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe.Ukukhula ngobuningi kokushada kwezingane esifundeni saseRushinga, ezifundazweni ezimaphakathi eMashonaland, eZimbabwe.
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The study aims to explore the proliferation of child marriage in Rushinga District which stands at 50 per cent in Zimbabwe. A clear understanding of the problem of marriage of children is essential to bridge the knowledge gap on the proliferation of the practice of marrying off children in Rushinga District. The study is unique as it explores the social and cultural context of communities in dealing with the problem of child marriage. The theory used to explore the perceptions and attitudes of the people in Rushinga District on the phenomenon of marrying off children is the Social Norms Theory by Parsons (1937) and Berkowitz (1986). The theory looks at the problem of child marriage through the lens of social and cultural context that frames the practice. This perspective points out that incidences of betrothal of girls in marriage are embedded in the social structures and attitudes that supports the practice within a social group. Customs and traditions surrounding marriage, including the desirable age for this, depends on views of community and society. In addition, social norms influence individual choices and they determine the criteria that an individual makes when deciding on the course of action to take. In making choices, individuals are sometimes influenced by community values in conforming to social expectations. The study adopts a qualitative case study approach, which is a scientific inquiry of a phenomenon within its real background. This is especially important to determine the impact of a phenomenon when its practice is not clearly defined. Social interpretive research entails that knowledge is tied in the social views of the people under study, and revelation of the meaning can be established through exploration and appreciative inquiry of the social world of the people. Purposively, 5 wards out of 29 wards in the District were sampled, where community members were asked to express their views about child marriage. All participants in this study were 18 years and older. In total, 25 participants participated in semi- structured interviews during the study. The research participants were chosen based on their knowledge and experiences of the phenomenon in the district. A number of themes emerged on the proliferation of child marriage during data collection and interpretation. The study revealed that betrothal of girl into marriage is embedded in the social interactions and how communities deal with issues such as poverty. For instance, marriage will entails bride price payment which becomes a livelihood option for a family in dire straits. Consequently, child brides are lives are entangled in abusive relationships imbedded in the norms surrounding masculinity in families. One of the panaceas identified in the study to the practice of child marriage, is community engagement and advocacy to deal with the social cultural impetus that triggers the practice of child marriage. Advocacy and dialoguing with opinion leaders is central to curb the practice of child marriage. Engagement will yield positive results as traditional leaders like chiefs can effectively monitor and implement the laws against child marriage, instead of sweeping them under the carpet.IQOQA Ukuqonda ukukhula ngobuningi kwemishado yezingane esiFundeni saseRushinga kubalulekile njengoba kuhleli kumaphesenti angama-50 eZimbabwe. Lolu cwaningo luphenya isimo sesikompilo emkhubeni wokushada kwezingane emiphakathini. INjulalwazi Yenjwayelo Yomphakathi kaParsons (1937) kanye noBerkowitz (1986) yiwo amehlo okubuka isimo sesikompilo kanye nokukhula ngobuningi kwemishado yezingane. Lokhu kuqonda kuveza ukuthi izigameko zokuzibophezela kanye nemishado yamantombazane kweyamene nezinhlalo zemiphakathi, imikhuba, kanye nezimomqondo. Injwayelo kanye namasiko amayelana nomshado, okubalwa kukho ubudala obudingekayo kulokhu, kuncike emibonweni yezakhamizi kanye nomphakathi. Injwayelo yomphakathi kanye namagugu emphakathini kunomthelela ekuzikhetheleni kwabantu ngabodwana kanye nezenzo zomphakathi. Ucwaningo lusebenzisa indlela yokucwaninga yekhwalithethivu. Lokhu kubalulekile ukubona umthelela wesimo lapho ukwenzeka kwaso kungacacile kahle. Ucwaningo lokuhumusha umphakathi lusho ukuthi ulwazi lusondelene nemibono yomphakathi wabantu abacwaningwayo, kanti ukwambuleka kwencazelo kungatholakala ngokuphenya kanye nokuphenya okuncomayo komhlaba womphakathi wabantu. Ngenhloso, izigceme ezi-5 ezigcemeni ezingama-29 esifundeni zasampulwa, lapho amalunga omphakathi aphonswa imibuzo ukuze abeke imibono yawo mayelana nokushada kwezingane. Bonke ababambiqhaza kulolu cwaningo babeneminyaka eyi-18 kanye nangaphezulu ubudala. Sebebonke, ababambiqhaza amangama-25 bahlanganyela ezingxoxweni ezisakuhleleka ngesikhathi socwaningo. Ababambiqhaza bocwaningo bakhethwa ngenxa yolwazi lwabo kanye nohambo lwabo kulokho okucwaningwayo esifundeni. Imiphumela iveza ukuthi ukukhula ngobuningi kanye nomshado wamantombazane kwencike ekuxhumaneni komphakathi kanye nokuthi izakhamizi zibhekana kanjani nezimo ezifana nobubha kanye nozinzo lwezomnotho. Njengokuthi nje, inkokhelo yelobolo, iba isu lempilo yomndeni nosewuphoqwe isimo. Nokuholela ekutheni, izimpilo zomakoti abayizingane zitholakala zihungeke ebudlelwaneni obunodlame futhi kwencike ekugqamiseni ubulisa kanye nobudoda. Ukuzibophezela komphakathi kanye nokulwela amalungelo kuba semqoka ekutheni ukuxoxisana nabaholi bomphakathi abafana nabaholi bendabuko njengamakhosi bangavumela ukulawuleka kanye nokusetshenziswa kwemithetho yemishado okubalwa kukho ubudala kanye nezimo zokubhekana nemvume yokushada.