A study of some factors influencing the individual-organization interface and their effects on job satisfaction and human performance among some agencies in the Durban customs clearing and forwarding industry.
Backhouse, Michael Allan.
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In this study an attempt is made to explore the individual-organization interface -- i.e., the nature of the relationship that prevails between an organization and its members -- and determine its effects upon such outcome variables as job satisfaction, instrumentality belief and work performance. Attributes of the individual (human needs) and the organization (dimensions of organizational climate), when combined, are hypothesized to influence this interface. This investigation is based upon a sample of fourteen shipping agencies drawen from among some agencies within the Durban Customs Clearing and Forwarding Industry. Agencies in this sample are divided into two broad categories, namely members and non members of the Durban Forwarders Association. Two hundred and eighty-three managerial and clerical employees from these agencies participated in this study. Scales designed to measure a set of work related needs, organizational climate, job satisfaction, instrumentality belief and work performance are administered to groups of employees from each of the participating agencies. These scales, except for that measuring organizational climate, are subject to a statistical procedure designed to calculate reliability. Only the scales that satisfy a minimum requirement of seventy percent for reliability are used in any further analysis. A factor analysis is carried out on the refined data for the scale of work related needs. Four factors emerged, surgency, passivity, assertiveness and financial incentive. The need indices together with these factors are intercorrelated using a Pearson's Product Moment Correlation. The results show that there are distinctly different patterns of organizational climate prevailing in member and non member organizations. Member agencies tend to be affiliation orientated; non member agencies, achievement orientated. A multivariate analysis is repeatedly calculated to identify the need-climate combinations that are related to one or more of the outcome variables. Canonical correlation is then employed to calculate the variance explained by each group of combination variables. The results show that the outcome variables explain approximately eighteen percent of the total variance in the data. In conclusion it is suggested that more research be undertaken using different sets of outcome variables to establish grounds for comparing the results of similar studies. It is further suggested that research of the nature can be used by an Organization Development Consultant as a diagnostic tool for the purpose of assessing the relationship that prevails between the individual and the organization.
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