Taking the ‘human’ out of human resources in the fourth industrial revolution? Ukukhishwa ‘kwezisebenzi’ Kwandaba Zabantu (Human Resources -HR) Ngenkathi Yenguqukonqala Yesine Yezobuchwepheshe?
Human resource functions have been revolutionised in recent times because of the emergence of new advanced technologies, including artificial intelligence. However, evidence suggests that artificial intelligence and advanced self-learning machines threaten the global workforce entirely and eliminate human interference. From these perspectives, the current study aimed to examine the impact that AI and technological advancement have on human resource functions. An exploratory research design was adopted to understand the subject matter better. Moreover, mixedmethods research was employed to collect and analyse quantitative and qualitative data. The total population of the study was 46, which included the chief executive officer, senior management, and human resources. Given the small size of the population, the entire population (the consensus) was used as the sample. Multiple data collection instruments (questionnaire, interviews, and focus group interviews) were used to collect the data to enable the triangulation of results. Concerning the quantitative research, 40 questionnaires were sent to the respondents. However, only 29 completed and returned the questionnaires. Moreover, there were 6 participants in the interviews and focus group discussion. The quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (version 27.0). The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined by computing factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively. On the other hand, the qualitative data was analysed manually using thematic analysis. The quantitative results indicated that the various constructs measured in the study were significant. The results of the Pearson’s moment correlation suggested no significant relationship between some of the variables, except human function will be transformed by artificial intelligence and the impact of artificial intelligence on skills set/competencies, and impact of artificial intelligence on skills set/competencies and the impact of artificial intelligence on business. In addition, the results of the analysis of variance suggested no significant difference in employees’ perceptions, varying by age, tenure, and race, respectively, regarding the current status of the use of artificial intelligence, advantages and disadvantages of the use of artificial intelligence, attitudes of human resource practitioners towards artificial intelligence, human resource function will be transformed by artificial intelligence, the impact of artificial intelligence on skills set/competencies. However, a significant difference existed in the employees’ perceptions, varying by race regarding the impact iv PUBLIC of artificial intelligence on business. Additionally, the sample t-test indicated a significant difference in the perceptions of male and female employees regarding all the variables measured in the study. On the other hand, the qualitative findings suggested that the adoption of AI in the HR department had impacted most of the human resource functions, including human case management, recruitment, learning, and chatbots. Furthermore, the qualitative findings revealed that the most significant advantage of using artificial intelligence was removing the mundane work and adding value. The study is unique as it sheds more light on how artificial intelligence has transformed most human resource functions. Therefore, the study recommends that organisations continue to invest in artificial intelligence. Iqoqa: Imisebenzi yakwandabazabantu isiguquliwe ezikhathini ezinganeno ngenxa yokuvela kobuchwepheshe obusha obuthuthukile, kuhlanganiswa nokuhlakanipha okungemvelo (artificial intelligence-AI). Nokho-ke, ubufakazi buveza ukuthi ukuhlakanipha okungemvelo nemishini yokuzifundela ethuthukile kubeka engcupheni umkhakha wezisebenzi womhlaba jikelele kuphinde kususe ukungenelela kwabantu. Ngokwale mibono, lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuhlola umthelela we-AI nowentuthuko kwezobuchwepheshe emisebenzini yakwandaba zabantu. Kwasetshenziswa idizayini yocwaningo ehlwayayo ukwenzela ukuqonda kangcono lesi sihloko. Naphezu-ke, kwaphinda kwasetshenziswa ucwaningo oluxubile ukuqoqa nokuhlaziya imininingo yocwaningoluhlonze nocwaningozibalo. Umphakathi walolu cwaningo wawungama-46, okwakufaka umphathi olawulayo omkhulu, izimenenja ezinkulu, nabakwandaba zabantu. Uma sibheka ubukhulu bomphakathi, wonke umphakathi (ukuvumelana) wasetshenziswa njengesampula. Kwasetshenziswa amathuluzi okuqoqa imininingo ahlukene (izinhlamibuzo, izimposambuzo, nezimposambuzo zeqoqo elicwaningwayo) ukwenzela ukuqoqa imininingo yokuveza imiphumela kanxantathu wesithombesenzeko. Mayelana nocwaningozibalo, kwathunyelwa izinhlamibuzo ezingama-40 kubabambiqhaza. Nokho-ke, okwagcwaliswa kwabuyiswa ezingama-29 kuphela. Naphezu-ke, kwakunababambiqhaza abayisi-6 ezimposambuzweni nasezingxoxweni zeqoqo elicwaningwayo. Iminininingo yocwaningoluhlonze yahlaziywa kusetshenziswa iStatistical Packages yamaSocial Sciences (uhlobo i-27.0). Kwatholwa ubuqiniso nokwethembeka kohlambuzo ngokuhlaziya imithelelela ngezobuchwepheshe nohlaziyo iCronbach’s alpha coefficient, ngokulandelana. Imiphumela yocwaningoluhlonze yaveza ukuthi imicabango eyayikalwe ocwaningweni yayimqoka. Imiphumela yePearson’s moment correlation yayikhombisa ukungabi khona kobudlelwano phakathi kwamanye amavariyebuli, ngaphandle kokuthi ukusebenza kwabantu yayizokuguqula ngokuhlakanipha okungemvelo nawumthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo emaqoqweni amakhono/ukukwazi ukwenza, nokuthi-ke umthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo emaqoqweni amakhono/ekukwazini ukwenza nomthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo ebhizinisini. Ukwengeza-ke, imiphumela wocwaningo lokwahluka yakhombisa ukungabi bikho komahluko ogqamile emibonweni yezisebenzi, ngokwahlukana ngeminyaka yobudala, umsebenzi, ubuhlanga, ngokulandelana mayelana nomumo wamanje wokusetshenziswa kokuhlakanipha okungemvelo, ubuhle nobubi bokuhlakanipha okungemvelo, izindlelakubuka ukuhlakanipha okungemvelo kwabasebenzisi bezakwandaba zabantu, ukusebenza kwakwandaba zabantu kungaguqulwa ngukuhlanganipha okungemvelo, umthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo emaqoqweni amakhono/ ekukwazini ukwenza. Nokho-ke, kwaba khona umehluko omkhulu emibonweni yezisebenzi, ngokwehlukana kobuhlanga, mayelana nomthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo ebhizinisini. Naphezu-ke, isivivinyo sesampula i-T sakhombisa umehluko omkhulu emibonweni yezisebenzi zesilisa nezesifazane mayelana namavariyebuli akalwa ocwaningweni. Kolunye uhlangothi, okwatholwa ngucwaningoluhlonze kwakhombisa ukuthi ukwamukelwa kwe-AI emnyangweni we-HR kwaba nomthelela ekusebenzeni okuningi kwakwandabazabantu, kuhlanganisa ukuphathwa kwezokuphathelene nabantu, ezokuqashwa, ukufunda nezokuxhumana. Naphezu-ke, okwazuzwa ngucwaningoluhlonze kwaveza ubuhle obumqoka ngokusetshenziswa kokuhlakanipha okungemvelo kwakungukususwa komsebenzi oyindavundavu nokwengezwa kwezinganani. Lolu cwaningo lwehlukile ngokuthi lucacisa ukuthi ukuhlakanipha okungemvelo sekuguqulwe kangakanani ekusebenzeni kondabazabantu. Ngakho-ke ucwaningo luncoma ukuthi izinhlangano ziqhubeke nokutshala izimali ekuhlakanipheni okungemvelo.
Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.