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Analysis and utilization of reverse power flow of wind energy source using multi-port power electronic transformer.

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The recent liberalization of the electricity market and increased environmental concerns as well as an increase in energy demand across the globe have brought the use of renewable energy sources such as wind energy to the fore. Some of the potential benets of renewable energy sources (RESs) are: localized generation, environmental-friendliness, generation of clean energy, reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, increase in energy generation for increasing demand, and reduction in transmission losses. However, high penetration of RESs exposes power grids to several challenges. Some of these challenges for RESs are: increases in voltage prole level, high power losses, reverse power ow (RPF), protection and control issues. The main concern of this research work is RPF. RPF is a situation whereby excess power generated on a grid as a result of high integration or penetration of RES is fed back to the source of generation. RPF exposes power grids to various challenges; aside from causing grid instability. RPF incurs additional losses on the grid, causing over-voltage and overloading of the connecting elements such as conductors and transformers. In recent times, various control strategies have been deployed to mitigate these effcts on the grid. Energy management systems (EMSs) with energy storage devices (ESDs) are the most commonly applied strategies. However, intrusion into consumers' privacy and the high cost of energy storage devices poses a challenge to this approach. Voltage rise (VR) is one of the consequences of RPF. Line impedance reduction and reactive power compensation using exible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices are some of the methods use for voltage rise control. On-load tap changer transformers (OLTCs), generation curtailment and reverse power relay are also deployed to control RPF. However, reactive power compensation and generation curtailment approaches lead to power losses and voltage instability respectively. This thesis proposes a more secure method for utilising reverse power to supply power to modern electric vehicle (EV) charging stations through a multi-port power electronic transformer (MPPET). The proposed method consists of a RPF detection stage (RPFDS) electrically coupled to the point of common coupling (PCC), which discriminates between the total power generated on the grid and the actual load demand. A smart circuit breaker operates as soon as it picks up signal from RPFDS. The MPPET receives power from RPF utilization substation which is then used for electric vehicle (EV) charging. The method was validated experimentally in the laboratory. The results of the research work proved the ectiveness of the MPPET involtage regulation and in RPF utilisation.


Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu- Natal, Durban.