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Masters Degrees (Community Development)

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    Assessing the impact of community structures in protecting forced migrant women in inner city Durban.
    (2021) Maliti, Tamasha Nyambura.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    Forced migration has become a global crisis, with half of those being women. Forced migrant women are the most vulnerable in situations of displacement and resettling in host countries. Community structures, however, can play important roles in protecting, integrating and providing women with support in their host country. The purpose of this study is to assess the roles and impact of existing community structures in protecting and integrating forced migrant women in the inner city of Durban, South Africa. This study uses social capital and social networks as a theoretical framework to understand the role of community structures in the protection and integration of forced migrant women. The study used a qualitative approach, with in-depth interviews with 12 women who were forced migrants. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling through a local non-governmental organization working with refugees. Data were thematically analysed with respect to the study’s objectives. Results showed community structures played two main roles, first, in offering short-term assistance such as, short-term accommodation, food and medical attention to women. Second, in providing longer - term assistance, in the form of spiritual support, connection to work opportunities and reuniting families. Women’s bonding and bridging social capital were important for them in accessing a wider range of opportunities via community structures and in establishing close-knit social networks such as support groups and savings clubs. Community structures also hindered migrant women’s integration and protection, specifically, around women’s experiences of sexual and gender based violence and intimate partner violence, community structures reinforced traditional gender roles, and they had limited resources to support women. Issues of mistrust also impeded the women from accessing needed assistance from wider social networks in the city. As a result, some women remained isolated and not adequately protected, hindering their integration and access to support systems. This study suggests that strategies to improve forced migrant women’s integration and protection could include creating safe spaces for women. In addition, working with and building the existing community structures’ capacity can help develop better responses to the needs of women.
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    Using community development practice for instilling the value of the institution of family: perceptions of academics at Howard College.
    (2019) Mkhize, Zamambo Sazi Nobahle.; Ntini, Edmore.
    Several literary works have acknowledged that the modern institution of the family is in crisis. The increase in social welfare cases such as street children, the vagrant homeless, moral degeneration and rampant crime have however been explained as indicators of and effects of the demise of the institution of the family. Rarely have scholars, researchers and practitioners in community development considered Community Development Practice as a possible tool for reviving the institution of the family. This study examined how community development practice can be used to restore the value of the institution of the family. A descriptive qualitative research design and purposive sampling was used. The sample consisted of information – rich informants who are academic elites in Social Sciences (the Department of Community and Development Studies, the Department of Social Work and the Department of Sociology) at Howard College University of KwaZulu-Natal. The interviewing method was used for the data collection. The study revealed that on one hand, community development practice can play eight roles in instilling the value of the institution of the family. On the other hand, community development practice can apply nine strategies in restoring the value of the beleaguered institution of the modern family.
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    Investigating the impact of COVID-19 on collective bargaining and workers' livelihoods: the case of NEHAWU in Durban.
    (2022) Mathonsi, Mbuyiseni Simon.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    Collective bargaining is often associated with higher earnings, greater security for employees, and greater earnings equality. During the collective bargaining financial circles of 2019/2020, 2020/2021, 2021/2022 South African collective bargaining could not meet this protective function. Protective function means ensuring adequate pay, deciding on limits on daily or weekly working hours, and regulating other working conditions. The failure of wage negotiations during the above collective bargaining circles had hampered the South African government’s plan to reduce the levels of race and gender inequality, and it has also had a negative impact on the country’s economic growth. This study investigates the impact of COVID 19 on collective bargaining and workers’ livelihoods, using the case of NEHAWU in Durban. The National Education, Health, and Allied Workers Union (NEHAWU) is one of the largest trade unions in South Africa, which organizes both in the public and private sectors (especially with regard to state-owned entities). A qualitative research approach was adopted together with an exploratory research design to conduct an in-depth exploration of the phenomenon under study. Semi-structured interviews (both face-to-face and online) were employed for data collection among the leaders and members of NEHAWU in Durban. Thematic analysis was used to code the qualitative data and identify the emerging themes and subthemes. Meanwhile a non-probability sampling method was employed, and a purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample of 10 (ten) participants for the study. “Collective bargaining: a veritable tool for resolving conflict”, the theory of collective bargaining by Kolatikan (2014) as well as three theoretical perspectives in industrial relations (the Unitary, the Radical and Pluralistic perspectives) combined to form the framework that underpin this study. The research study revealed that the failure of collective bargaining during 2019/2020, 2020/2021, and 2021/2022 collective bargaining circles as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic did not only disrupted workers’ livelihoods but it also reversed workers’ level of life and deepened gender, race, and class inequalities. The study also revealed that the salary freeze experienced during the above collective bargaining circles, coupled with the rise in food and petrol prizes, drove some workers into hard-core poverty, a level of the working poor, with workers occupying the lowest rungs of the payment system bearing the most brunt. The study recommends that collective bargaining needs to be strengthened and protected, especially during disasters such as COVID-19. It also recommends the up skilling of the low-paid workers so that they can move up the salary rungs. It further recommends that collective bargaining should prioritize workers who are in the lowest rungs of the salary payment system.
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    Exploring the benefits and challenges of land restitution at Qhubekani-Mnqobokazi community land.
    (2022) Mabaso, Thembisile Rejoice.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    In 1994, the democratic government of South Africa introduced the Land Reform Programme, which aimed to redress the historical imbalances. The Land Reform Programme is designed to provide equitable redress to persons and communities involuntarily dispossessed of their rights to land after June 1913 due to racially discriminatory laws and practices. Of the three pillars of the land reform programme, land restitution, land tenure reform, and redistribution, the former is seldom a matter of empirical inquiry. The people who lost their rights were allowed to lodge claims with the Regional Land Claims Commission office for equitable redress. Mnqobokazi community, was dispossessed of their rights to land, and out of the three types of land reform awards, the Mnqobokazi community opted for restoration of the land used as a game reserve owned by Phinda, and &Beyond. This research explores the benefits and challenges of land restitution in the Qhubekani-Mnqobokazi community. Mnqobokazi community is a poor community in a remote rural area under UMkhanyakude District Municipality, KwaZuluNatal. This study further investigated the challenges that the Qhubekani-Mnqobokazi community and land Restitution faced in making land claimed to benefit the people of the Qhubekani-Mnqobokazi community and made recommendations on how the land claimed through restitution could be used to address socio-economic challenges in the QhubekaniMnqobokazi community. This researcher used a qualitative research approach, and the philosophical grounding is a social constructivist paradigm. Data was collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews. Semi-structured interviews are the most common technique in qualitative research. Eighteen (n=18) participants participated in the study. Among these, three of them were from the Office of the Land Claims Commission, six were Qhubekani-Mnqobokazi Committee members, four were ordinary community members who are also referred to as beneficiaries of the land restitution, and two were from the community leadership which is the Municipality and the tribal authority. One participant was from the management of Phinda Game Reserve. This study analysed data using themes, and literature was used to support or refute the empirical findings. The findings show that the community of Mnqobokazi benefited from their land restitution claim. Access to education improved through schools that were built. Further, the health and well-being of the community improved through increased access to potable water, and sanitation. The community also benefited from access to electricity, health care services, business development, and increased job opportunities. However, there is still room for improvement regarding skills transfer, the balance of power, community involvement, and participation in decision-making. The researcher recommends that Phinda Game Reserve should train community members on conservation and land restitution to bring back postsettlement support and ensure that they improve their processes to ensure that land claims do not take long to settle. Further, efforts to empower community members particularly the youth must be prioritised to enable efficient skills transfer. Most community members in Mnqobokazi are satisfied with what they have accomplished as a community through land restitution.
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    An exploration of community attitudes towards people living with mental illnesses: a case of Inanda KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Mthembu, Andile Kevin.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    The topic of mental health is one of the many topics that are neglected in many South African communities. Although this is a burning issue that affects millions of South Africans, little to nothing has been done to raise awareness regarding this phenomenon that society still grapples with among many other pandemics. Available literature suggests that the issue of mental illnesses is among the many issues that haven’t been given the necessary attention they deserve as a result of their magnitude and also the negative effects they have on many lives in our communities. Communities lack the necessary tools and services to tackle the problems associated with mental illnesses and the stigma thereof. People living with mental illnesses are continuously marginalised, violated and excluded from community programmes as a result of the stigma and negative attitudes associated with mental illnesses. This study was motivated by the fact that although mental illnesses are a huge concern for South African communities as they disrupt many lives and lead to death as many people have died by suicide as a result of mental illnesses and not being able to talk about them as a result of the negative stigma associated with mental illness, yet little has been done to provide communities, especially townships with mental health services. This study is geared towards exploring community attitudes towards people living with mental illnesses. The study was conducted at Durban Inanda, Kwa-Zulu Natal. Methodologically, the study employed a qualitative approach that involved semi-structured interviews conducted with twenty-six participants involved in the study. The study found that community members harbour negative attitudes towards those living with mental illnesses. This is a result of how people living with mental illnesses are depicted as violent, dangerous and not deserving of being treated with dignity. The study also showed that community members have false and misleading information regarding mental illness and those living with it. Another finding of the study was that the community lacked mental health services that can provide the community with the correct information regarding mental illnesses thus curbing the scourge of mental illness stigma as well as the associated repercussions. The study concludes that mental health service centres are a necessity in the community as they can play critical role in raising awareness regarding mental illness as well as facilitating programmes that can assist communities to better deal with issues related to mental illnesses without stigmatising and victimising those living with such illnesses.
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    An analysis of the links between poverty and gender at Vedriet farm in KwaZulu-Natal province.
    (2022) Emmanuel, Thamsanqa Mncube.; Matse, Muzi Patrick.
    This study aimed to describe the relationship between poverty and gender inequality. The study also sought to understand how gender inequality promotes poverty and to determine prevalent incidences linked to poverty and gender inequality. The study employed a qualitative research methodology in the form of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Purposive sampling was used to select 16 participants who met the minimum of four of the five criteria. Using Structural functionalism theory to conduct the study, the main findings revealed that females are at greater risk of poverty because of the social construct of gender. The literature reviewed confirmed that gender inequality is a major threat to poverty reduction. The study further revealed that younger and older women do not agree over challenging patriarchal practices in the community. Moreover, the study further revealed that the social construct of gender affects women negatively and harms men and boys who are regarded weak when they advocate for equal rights and opportunities. As a result, social restrictions discourage men and boys from deviation from traditional expectations. In addition, patriarchal practices and beliefs allow too much freedom to boys than girls. The practical implications of the findings are that poverty and gender inequality interventions need to concentrate on gender-related poverty differentials and consider access level to and control over resources at the initial stage. Moreover, analysis of gender relations and gender impact assessment must be a prerequisite for successfully implementing any poverty alleviation programmes, policies, and projects.
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    The self-provision of micro-credit schemes by women’s group in Chókwè: processes, challenges and outcomes.
    (2015) Bambo, Mario Enoque.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    The majority of poor people in Mozambique have been excluded from getting loans, even from traditional financial institutions since they do not have valuable assets or credit histories to enable them to be legible from those loans. As a means for facilitating alternative financing, a growing number of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in Mozambique have engaged in micro-credit projects in partnership with poor Community Based Groups (CBGs). This allows poor communities to meet some of their basic needs. This dissertation focused on the self-provision of micro-credits by the community grouping from the 4th Neighbourhood in Chókwè district as the selected case study. The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of micro-credit schemes in alleviating poverty as incorporated with the principles of community development. The study found that the principles of community development are crucial in enhancing the self-provision of micro-credit schemes. The beneficiaries were empowered through small business training to better manage their micro-enterprises. They also participated in the decision-making process since the rules and modalities for the functioning of the micro-credit process and the group administrative structure were established by them. The available local resources enabled a comparative advantage to micro-enterprises process. Although the enterprises run by the beneficiaries are at the micro level, the study found that they are not disassociated with environmental problems. This includes cases such as the destruction of vegetation, erosion of the land and elimination of fish species. The internal and inter district business relations have been favourable to micro-enterprises since the trading partners have equal power relations. The study also found that although the beneficiaries of the micro-credit schemes engaged in the survivalist type of micro-enterprise, they generate an income that satisfies their basic needs in a sustainable manner. Nevertheless, those beneficiaries that ran established fledging micro-enterprises had upwards shift of their household socio-economic status when compared to others. This has resulted in their households to move to horizontal social mobility.
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    The effects of the political violence of the 1980s and 1990s on the families of the political activists of Kwa-Makhutha, Kwa-Zulu Natal.
    (2016) Mlambo, Primrose Sibusisiwe.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    The study sought to investigate the effects of political violence on the lives of the former activists and their families at Kwa-Makhutha Township in Kwa-Zulu Natal, in South Africa. Political violence in this study was an instrument used by activists as a defence mechanism to cope with the pain inflicted by the state or the political opposition. The aim of the study was to answer the research questions such as, what does political violence and political struggle mean to the former activists. What was the main reason for getting engaged in the struggle and political violence? At what cost did the former activists engage in political struggle or political violence? These questions were answered by employing research techniques that included individual face-to-face interviews and observation. The study was conducted from the 1st August 2014 to 31st March 2015. The sample of the study consisted of 45 interviewees, 35 males and 10 females, all above the age of 30. Key findings highlighted the negative social and economic effects of political violence on the livelihoods of members of the community. The key issues identified in the study were the lack of infrastructural development and the slow pace of service delivery. The study applied the Relative Depravation and Social Action theories that provided a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why the activists engaged in political violence. The study revealed that despite the government policies that address socio-economic development, people continue to live in abject poverty in previously disadvantaged communities such as Kwa-Makhutha.
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    Appraising the participation of Khula village communities in Isimangaliso Wetland Park tourism initiatives in South Africa.
    (2016) Moloi, Marole Nkosikhona.; Khalema, Ernest Nene.
    Tourism is one of South Africa’s major drivers of economic growth, which has been growing over the past decade. As such, South Africa remains focused on developing and expanding tourism etiquette to boost the industry in order to stir up and achieve development growth through it. This research explores the effectiveness of tourism in impacting development by looking one of the most impressive centers of tourism in the country, iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Since South Africa has adopted tourism as a developmental strategy, it tries to maximize on the industry to benefit local communities, and reach out to the poor people within those communities especially in rural areas. Therefore, the research utilizes the understanding of Pro-poor tourism (PPT) to bring out an understanding of how strategies in tourism can be considered for generating benefits for the poor in various communities. Others include, responsible tourism, eco-tourism, community-based tourism and sustainable tourism. Therefore, the South African tourism sector is actively taking an upfront approach to proactively pursue sustainable tourism measures that can quickly accrue much benefits to millions of local people ([mostly] in rural areas), particularly poor people living in and around Tourist Destination Areas (TDAs). However, these strategies may face some challenges in reaching their anticipated targeted goals. The research therefore, investigates the various positive and negative environmental and socio-economic impacts that lie behind tourism that have been imparted onto the surrounding communities/areas of iSimangaliso Wetland Park in South Africa.
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    The participation of senior citizen in community development activities in uThukela District, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2020) Sikhosana, Mbali Londiwe.; Ntini, Edmore.
    Senior citizens are often perceived by society as unproductive, alienated and ineffectual individuals. However, if opportunities are made for them, senior citizens can bring a positive change to their respective communities. This study examines what could be done to ensure the participation of senior citizens in community development activities, by exploring the roles they may play, factors in favour and against their participation and strategies for inviting and sustaining their participation in community development activities. A qualitative design and purposive sampling are used. The sample of 14 information-rich informants from the following categories: A councillor, a member of non-governmental organisation, senior citizens and ordinary community members. Interviewing is used as the primary method for data collection. The findings reveal that senior citizens should participate in community development activities, since they have availability of time, wide knowledge base and transferable skills. Furthermore, they can be more committed and they are trusted by the community. It reveals that senior citizen participation is deterred by unawareness, lack of specific supportive policy, age discrimination and physical barriers. Thirty roles are identified for senior citizen in community development activities. Strategies for inviting them to participate are: the use of policy, change of attitude, creating favourable conditions, use of media, avoiding discrimination and recognise senior citizens in their respective communities. Strategies for sustaining their participation emerged as follows: involve them in various committees, communities invite senior citizens and encouraging their participation and illuminating deterring factors. The study’s main recommendations is for increase efforts in municipalities, communities, community development organisations, government and families to involve senior citizens in effective and instrumental participation in community development activities.
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    Ward committees as a mechanism for promoting community participation and service delivery: a case study of Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality.
    (2020) Mdletshe, Fisokuhle.; Matse, Muzi Patrick.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    The transformation of local government in a post-apartheid South Africa was seen as ensuring citizens' inclusion in the policy and decision-making process, especially the marginalized communities and groups, in previously excluded societies in a country (RA 1998). The study set out to obtain information on the ward committees as the mechanisms in promoting community participation and service delivery with a case study of Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The study aimed to assess ward committees' effectiveness as a mechanism for promoting community participation and service delivery in Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The study demonstrated that ward committees' effective operation is paramount for active community participation and strengthening communication between municipalities and local citizens. In assessing the understating and conceptualizations of public participation in Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The focus of the study was on the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The researcher collected primary data through observation and semi-structured interviews. The researcher observed the conduct of ward committee members in the meeting with Municipal officials in Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The secondary data were collected from published research studies on ward committees, public participation and service delivery, and government publications and journal articles. From the findings gathered, it was evident that Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality was not doing enough to strengthen the ward committee as a vehicle to advance participatory democracy and service delivery in local governance. The study was informed by the participants' responses and opinions (the ward committee members, ward councillors, and municipal officials, namely, the office of the Speaker, the Deputy Mayor). The study concluded with recommendations for strengthening ward committees and enhancing public participation.
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    Orphans and vulnerable children's perceptions of child poverty in Cator Manor, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    (2020) Ngobese, Nompumelelo.; Manyombe, Celestin Busare.
    Child poverty has proven to have a massively negative effect on children psychologically, physically, academically and spiritually. Although child poverty affects all children, however, orphans and vulnerable children are affected the most. To meet the needs of orphans and vulnerable children, the South African government has implemented many policies and programmes as interventions that oversee the well-being of children and strive to alleviate child poverty. This study was motivated by the fact that despite all these interventions provided for OVC that are poor, the number of OVC and children living in poverty continues to grow. There is still little knowledge on the extent to which OVC experience poverty in South Africa from children’s perceptions. Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions provided for OVC to improve their school performance in South Africa, specifically in KwaZulu-Natal. The aim of this study is to analyse child poverty from the perspective of orphans and vulnerable children of Cato Manor, KwaZulu-Natal. In order to achieve this goal, the researcher utilised mixed methods to collect the data. In the quantitative method, the researcher used a survey questionnaire, entailing closed-ended questions to collect numerical data. On the other hand, qualitative data focused on interviews, which includes open-ended questions. The study’s findings indicate that OVC are indeed the victims of poverty. The extent of poverty experienced by OVC includes lacking food security, access to proper education and lack of habitable conditions. The impact of child poverty on OVC is observed through the stigma and discrimination they experience that leads to isolation and dropping out of school. The study concludes that in order to meet the needs of OVC, the programmes and interventions that are provided need to be monitored and evaluated so that they can be effective. Furthermore, awareness programmes need to be implemented for children, teachers and the community to learn more about OVC in order to eradicate discrimination directed towards them.
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    Opportunities and challenges for female student entrepreneurship at University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.
    (2021) Ndaba, Noxolo, Nonjabulo.; Mtapuri, Oliver.
    This study investigates female student entrepreneurship at University of KwaZulu Natal by exploring the challenges and opportunities they encounter at this institution. The three objectives of the study were: to explore the opportunities available to female students through entrepreneurship; to explore the challenges faced by female entrepreneurs; and to make recommendations on how female students can be empowered. The study employed a qualitative research approach and the interpretive paradigm. The thematic analysis was used to analyze the findings. Ten semi-structured interviews with female student entrepreneurs, and observations were used as instruments to collect primary data, and secondary data through an organization called UKZN Inqubate. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. The review of literature revealed that female student entrepreneurship remains one of the leaststudied significant economic phenomena. This lack of diversity in research topics often resulted from the assumption that entrepreneurship was the same all over the world. As a result, there is less focus placed on female student entrepreneurship, especially in higher institutions of learning, thus placing constraints on female student entrepreneurs to be provided with relevant support or assistance. This study sought to fill this gap. The study found out that female student entrepreneurs venture into entrepreneurship due to the financial difficulties. Furthermore, the findings show that female student entrepreneurs at UKZN, Howard College Campus have less support in this institution to improve and grow their businesses. This shows that female student entrepreneurs remain to be on the marginalised line, where support and assistance is difficult to find. These challenges of female student entrepreneurs at the Howard College Campus results to them giving up in their journey of entrepreneurship, and results to failures of their businesses. However, findings from the study shown that regardless of all the challenges, female student entrepreneurship at Howard College Campus has played a huge role in fighting against the triple burden (poverty, unemployment, and inequality) of women which keeps them at the marginalised line. There is indeed a call and need for the improvement support of female student entrepreneurship at Howard College Campus, not only for the benefit of the individual entrepreneurs, but also for the enhancement of the economy.
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    Local economic development as an employment strategy in eMkhazeni rural area (ward 21), Ulundi Municipality.
    (2021) Masikane, Sphesihle.; Thsishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    This research study aims to evaluate the LED strategy as an employment strategy in eMkhazane rural area (Ward 21), Ulundi Municipality. In South Africa unemployment is a perpetual challenge, especially to those who reside in the former homelands. The escalation of poverty in South Africa is due to the legacy of apartheid and post-apartheid adoption of new liberal policies. The study revealed that the weakness of LED strategy lies in the municipality budget, lack of local skills and knowledge. The strength of Local Economic Development Strategy towards employment; public-private partnerships has been identified as a bridge to fill the gap between the LED and unemployment. The LED can be improved by encouraging public-private partnerships by means of inviting local government and stakeholders to bring about Local Economic Development. Partnering with private sectors has been recognised as a potential drive because the private sector can be able to hold big projects that can hold a larger capacity of public participation in projects to achieve an inclusive and successful LED strategy.
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    An analysis of stakeholder participation in community housing in Payneville extension 1, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality.
    (2020) Maluleke, Themba Orvall.; Thsishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    The aim of the study to an analyse stakeholder participation in community housing in Payneville Extension 1, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality. In South Africa housing delivery is a human right that is considered as a one of the basic services essential for human dignity. During the apartheid era the black majority was excluded from housing delivery and other developments, hence the democratic government embarked on various initiatives as part of redress. This study revealed that community participation is not only essential in housing service delivery, but it is also a determining principle in ensuring quality houses upon which social cohesion and solidarity could be enhanced. It is therefore, crucial that it creates awareness among stakeholders on decisions made in the provision of their housing. study highlighted that when communities participate in a project, they make the stakeholders to be accountable of the housing project and the quality and standards of the houses to be delivered. also highlighted that there is a need to involve the community to a greater extent in decision making and development project in order to increase the degree of trust and avoid confrontations that often times led to the delays and costly incurrences of a project. Although their hindrances to community participation, the study revealed different strategies that could be used to overcome them through the promotion and enhancement community participation. In this instance participants wanted community participation to be the watchdog of the delivery of housing in the study area.
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    Interrogating the implementation of local economic development for poverty alleviation in Nkomazi Municipality, Mpumalanga.
    (2020) Makamo, Winile Pride.; Mtapuri, Oliver.; Mbatha, Zilungile Pearl.
    This study interrogates the implementation of Local Economic Development (LED) for poverty alleviation in Nkomazi Local Municipality in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Its aim was to examine the implementation of LED activities in the Nkomazi Municipal area, in line with three objectives which were to examine LED strategy, to explore the effectiveness of local economic development for poverty alleviation, and to make a recommendation on how Local Economic Development could be improved in Nkomazi Municipality. This study applied an interpretive paradigm and a qualitative research approach. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. The data were collected using document analysis and semi-structured interviews. A total of seven participants were involved, including both males and females. The study found out that the Nkomazi Local Economic Development strategy was not compelling, and its essential components on poverty alleviation were only partial and led to constrained impact. The research findings revealed that the main reasons for LED Implementation project were to create jobs in order to alleviate poverty and unemployment. The secondary reasons include skills development, networking, cultural promotion, and municipal community development. The key recommendation is that partnerships with private stakeholders, businesses, and community organizations must be strengthened to address the problem of unemployment. This would open space for more stable job opportunities for the community. Local Economic Development is everybody’s business including the local population, local business, and government. This research concluded that the LED strategy established in the municipality has inadequate funding to implement LED and lacks skilled management, as well as knowledge about the processes and the procedure of LED. The municipalities have good policies that support the implementation and funding of local economic development, but there is still a gap in terms of enforcing those policies, which include fully implementing the stages of the World Bank economic model to yield effective and sustainable results.
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    Local economic development as an employment strategy in eMkhazane rural area (ward 21), Ulundi Municipality.
    (2021) Masikane, Siphesihle.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.
    This research study aims to evaluate the LED strategy as an employment strategy in eMkhazane rural area (Ward 21), Ulundi Municipality. In South Africa unemployment is a perpetual challenge, especially to those who reside in the former homelands. The escalation of poverty in South Africa is due to the legacy of apartheid and post-apartheid adoption of new liberal policies. The study revealed that the weakness of LED strategy lies in the municipality budget, lack of local skills and knowledge. The strength of Local Economic Development Strategy towards employment; public-private partnerships has been identified as a bridge to fill the gap between the LED and unemployment. The LED can be improved by encouraging public-private partnerships by means of inviting local government and stakeholders to bring about Local Economic Development. Partnering with private sectors has been recognised as a potential drive because the private sector can be able to hold big projects that can hold a larger capacity of public participation in projects to achieve an inclusive and successful LED strategy.
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    Examining career development approaches to address youth unemployment in Ixopo, KZN: community-informed perspectives.
    (2019) Dlamini, Lindokuhle Simphiwe.; Khalema, Ernest Nene.
    Youth unemployment in South Africa has significantly increased in the last few years. While youth unemployment rates have increased across all racial groups and geographical areas in the country, the black youth from rural areas seem to be carrying more burden of unemployment. Ixopo town in Kwa Zulu Natal province, which has a predominantly rural African population was selected for this study. The rural village was chosen because, like many rural areas in South Africa, it is facing enormous challenges of youth unemployment. The study aimed to examine the career development approaches and practices used to address youth unemployment in rural areas. A qualitative study was undertaken at the Ixopo community to examine the career development approaches and practices used. In collecting the data, semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion and documentary sources used. A sample population of twenty-three (23) participated in the study through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Semi-structured interviews administered to 4 local teachers, 2 community members, 2 community development workers,1 municipal official and 4 university students who originate from the community. A focus group discussion was held with ten (10) Grade 12 learners from the local high school — thematic data analysis employed to analyse the collected data. The findings show that the rate of youth unemployment is very high in rural areas. It is also evident that there is an increasing rate of unemployed youth which is not in education, employment or training (NEETs). Meanwhile, the rising number of young unemployed graduates is also becoming a massive concern to the rural communities and the country. The research concluded that some of the major causes for the high rural youth unemployment include: Low levels of education due to early exit from the schooling system; high levels of poverty resulting to high rates of school dropouts; unavailability of industries to employ in the rural communities; as well as the lack of adequate career development and guidance to prepare youth for future careers and employment. The study also found that learners in rural areas lack career ambition and inspiration because they often struggle to balance their severe socio-economic condition and studies. In terms of career development approaches and practices, it emerged that the schooling system is weak in the delivery of career development and guidance. The study revealed that teachers not equipped to deliver career guidance to learners; they lack sufficient training on career guidance and counselling, and there is a lack of resources and relevant updated information for them to the effective delivery of career guidance in the rural schools. The study also shows that the schools and the local municipalities are making an effort to provide career guidance services through annual career exhibitions, roadshows and other interventions. However, these do not seem to achieve the desired outcome because the responses often compete with socio-economic challenges like poverty, which distract the youth from focusing on their education and careers. Hence, the study also scrutinized the socio-economic, environmental and individual factors that affect the delivery of career development and guidance in rural areas. The study shows that the socio-environmental and individual factors have massive influence in the delivery of career development and future employability of rural youth. These factors include the influence of family; poverty; peers; career gender and stereotypes; lack of role models, lack of self -confidence and lack of access to information, communication and technology (ICT), among others. The effect of these influences is that they either limit or increase future employment prospects for rural youth. The recommendation from the study that, to alleviate and address rural youth unemployment, career development approaches for youth in rural communities should be tailor-made to accommodate their unique, disadvantaged socio-economic situations.
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    Identifying causes of substance use disorder and finding systems of reintegrating patients from Newlands Park Rehabilitation Centre.
    (2019) Sibhayi, Simthembile Njabulo.; Xaba, Thokozani Timothy.
    In South Africa, individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) have very limited options in accessing rehabilitation centres and those who have access face a great challenge of maintaining sobriety post rehabilitation, and this has implication for community development. Historically, more emphasis has been put into the scientific aspect of understanding the effects of drugs on the physical being but seeing that the number of substance abusers is increasing, perhaps understanding the causes of SUD and finding their solutions is mandatory. The rehabilitation centres that are under state supervision spend big sums of hard-earned tax payer’s money in rehabilitating patients, however growing relapse rates which is detrimental to development indicates that something needs to be done to better reintegrate the patients back into society. Rehabilitation centres require a deeper inspection concerning the effectiveness of programmes preparing patients for post rehabilitation. This study looked at the nature of SUD in Newlands West and what contributes towards the high rate of relapsing patients from the nearby Newlands Park Rehabilitation Centre. To do this, and to determine the implications there of community development, this study employed a qualitative method and it draws information gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews that were conducted at Newlands West and Newlands Park Centre from February to March 2018. The goal was to identify the main causes of relapsing patients from Newlands Park Centre and to find solutions that will help to successfully integrate them back into their communities. The study also employed a thematic analysis method where conclusions were drawn from the following themes: General Causes of Substance Use Disorder (SUD); Main Factors Contributing towards SUD; The Community’s Involvement in the Reintegration of Patients; and Overview of Community Participation and its value in SUD Alleviation Programmes.
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    Health and socioeconomic analysis of waste picking activities in Durban.
    (2019) Sibanda, Phathiwe.; Oliver, Mtapuri.
    The main aim of this study was to unpack the health and socio-economic status of waste picking activities in Mayville, Cato Manor and Westville in Durban. It analysed the quality of life of waste pickers, their awareness of the risks associated with this kind of work and the extent of their uptake of health protective measures. A quantitative approach was adopted, and a questionnaire was used to gather data from 81 waste pickers. The findings revealed that unemployment was the main reason for taking up waste picking and that this was the respondents’ main source of income. It was also found that most of the respondents resided in shacks and had no access to running water. Most were unaware of the risks associated with this kind of work. Based on these findings, it is recommended that economic development be pursued to create employment opportunities and that delivery of basic services such as potable water be improved, especially in informal settlements. Awareness campaigns should be launched to educate waste pickers on handling waste and on the risks associated with this kind of work as well as the need to adopt protective health measures. Finally, the researcher ecommends that further research should be conducted on waste picking in Durban as there is a paucity of information on this activity in the city.