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Doctoral Degrees (Construction Management)

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    Applying the social cognitive career theory to the influence of sociocultural factors on women’s career choices in construction.
    (2020) Akinlolu, Mariam Temisola.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    Despite its significant contribution regarding employment in South Africa, women remain severely underrepresented in the construction industry. Men have become the primary beneficiaries of these job opportunities and the determinants of the construction industry’s culture. The construction industry continues to be a highly male-dominated sector, with a significant overrepresentation of men. Consequently, women have been perceived to be inferior to men and therefore, occupy minor employment positions in the industry. Limited research has been undertaken regarding the meaning men, and women make of various career choice behaviours and activities. Consequently, very little is known about why women make certain career choices. This study examines the influence of sociocultural factors on women’s underrepresentation in construction and then develops a model to improve women’s career choices in the construction industry. The Socio-Cognitive Career Theory was applied to determine the factors that predict career choices in construction, in the South African context. The study further explores the possible differential validity of SCCT variables and person and contextual factors such as self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goal representations, social supports, interests, learning experiences, perceived barriers, gender stereotypes and access to opportunity structures for men and women, as well as among women from different socio- economic backgrounds. Therefore, a mixed-method approach, consisting of a Delphi and survey method, was adopted to model career choice in construction within the South African context.Results of this study were consistent with some of the propositions of the SCCT (1994), except the direct influence of learning experiences on career choices, which was not supported for the sample in this study. The findings revealed that career choice in the construction profession is a nine-factor model. The final model revealed that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goal representations, social supports, interests, perceived discriminatory barriers, perceived barriers to career success and progression, gender stereotypes and access to opportunity structures are significant with career choice. Learning experiences was found to be insignificant. Therefore, the identified constructs have a significant direct influence on career choice and are predictors and determinants of career choice in the South African construction industry. Also, the goodness of fit and statistical significance of the parameter estimates met the cut-off criteria for the hypothesized model. A practical implication of the research is that results from the study suggest clear pathways to making a career choice in construction, for women who want to enter and remain in the construction work. This study is unique, as samples from diverse groups are usually not included in career choice and development research. Therefore, the study recommends that further cross-cultural studies should be conducted in thisarea of research.
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    An Effective Public Procurement Model for Construction Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises in South Africa.
    (2022) Mdadane, Thulani Alfred.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    Public procurement plays a vital role in the economy and public expenditure of any country and serves as an indicator of the effectiveness of a government. Despite the several reforms made to the South African public procurement system and application of supply chain management as a strategic policy strategic instrument, the South African public procurement system has still been strongly criticised for not encouraging the participation of small and medium enterprises. Therefore, this study aims to develop an effective public procurement model for small, medium, and micro enterprises in South Africa. The study further explores the relationship between competitiveness, openness, accountability, transparency, and value for money on effective public procurement. A quantitative method consisting of a questionnaire survey was adopted. A stratified sampling technique was used to select 250 participants for the study. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 27.0, and Analysis of Moment Structures, version 26.0, were used to analyse the data. The results showed that openness, accountability, transparency, and value for money influenced public procurement. Competitiveness, as a factor, however, had no effect on public procurement. The findings revealed that effective public procurement is a four-factor model. The final model revealed that openness, value for money, accountability, and transparency are significant with effective public procurement. Therefore, the identified constructs have a significant direct influence and are determinants of effective public procurement. Also, the goodness of fit and statistical significance of the parameter estimates met the cut-off criteria for the hypothesized model. This study is unique as it contributes to expanding the body of knowledge on the publicprocurement system in South Africa. An important implication of this study is that it contributes to enhancing efficiency in the South African public-procurement system. This study could be used as a tool to encourage the participation of small, medium, and micro enterprises in public procurement. In addition, the value of this study is that it provides mechanisms through which the South African public-procurement system can be improved to eliminate corruption, maladministration, and irregularities. Based on the findings, the recommendation is that the public procurement process comply with procurement regulations to encourage the participation of small, medium, and micro enterprises. ISIZULU: Lolu cwaningo lwakha imodeli yokuthengwa kwempahla yomphakathi esebenzayo yokwakha ama-SMME eNingizimu Afrika. Ucwaningo luqhubeka nokuhlola ubudlelwano phakathi kokuncintisana, ukuvuleleka, ukubophezeleka, ukwenza izinto obala kanye nokuthola imali ekuthengeni komphakathi okusebenzayo. Indlela yokulinganisa, equkethe inhlolovo yemibuzo yamukelwa. Indlela esetshenzisiwe yokwenza isampula isetshenziselwe ukukhetha ababambiqhaza abangama-250 ocwaningweni. Kusetshenziswe uhlu lwemibuzo osekuphele isikhathi ukuqoqa imininingwane kubaphenduli. Isoftware ye-IBM SPSS, inguqulo 27.0, ne-AMOS, inguqulo 26.0, isetshenziselwe ukuhlaziya imininingwane. Ukuhlaziywa nokuchazwa kwedatha kwenziwe ngokusebenzisa izibalo ezichazayo. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo ibihambisana nokutholakele ocwaningweni oluningi, ngaphandle kwethonya eliqondile lokuncintisana ekuthengweni kwempahla okusebenzayo yomphakathi akuzange kusekelwe kusampula ocwaningweni. Okutholakele kuveze ukuthi ukuthengwa komphakathi okusebenzayo kuyisibonelo sezici ezine. Imodeli yokugcina iveze ukuthi ukuvuleleka, inani lemali, ukubophezeleka kanye nokwenza izinto obala kubalulekile ekuthengeni komphakathi okusebenzayo. Ukuncintisana kutholakale kungabalulekile. Ngakho-ke, ukwakhiwa okukhonjiwe kunomthelela oqondile oqondile futhi kungukunquma kokuthengwa komphakathi okusebenzayo. Futhi, ubuhle bokubaluleka okufanelekile nezibalo zesilinganiso sepharamitha kuhlangabezane nenqubo yokusika yemodeli ye-hypothesised.
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    Assessing South African public sector maturity to implement the infrastructure delivery management system (IDMS).
    (2020) Chigangacha, Progress Shingai.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.; Awuzie, Bankole Ositadinma.
    Infrastructure is the fulcrum of a strong economy. It can be considered as the backbone of every economy as it directly impacts on some elements of expansive socio-economic development which contribute to economic growth and development thereby increasing societal value and quality of life. Undoubtedly, infrastructure is critical and a prerequisite for economic growth and power. Likewise, the paucity of and lack thereof of adequate infrastructure impedes national growth and development. For most developing countries, there are large infrastructural deficits and the infrastructure gap is large, with infrastructure delivery being characterized by slow progress and development. South Africa too is fraught with a myriad of challenges affecting infrastructure delivery and this has seen the South African government prioritizing and scaling up expenditure on infrastructure to support its economic growth and development plans. In recent years, the South African government has made remarkable progress to support its economic growth and development plans and introduced recent enabling legislation and guidelines, in the process reducing poverty and inequality. However, it is still plagued with tremendous backlogs and shortfalls due to considerable bottlenecks, as a result of several systemic challenges that inhibit the effective delivery of infrastructural installations, the causes of which have not necessarily been identified or understood. Furthermore, there is severe persistence of infrastructure challenges facing the South African landscape despite numerous government interventions to scale up infrastructure delivery. The Infrastructure Delivery Management System (IDMS), a government model formulated to ameliorate infrastructure delivery has not been adequately utilized so as to achieve its full effectiveness and efficiency. This could potentially be emanating from deficiencies in institutional capacities and capabilities and the lack of organizational readiness to utilize this model. Suffice to note is the reality that the challenges of infrastructure in South Africa are not primarily attributed to lack of funding but are as a result of institutional failures and a lack of requisite capacity within the Public sector Against this background, this study aimed primarily to develop and validate a maturity model for assessing and improving public sector organizations’ readiness for effective IDMS implementation. Upon model development and validation, the study assessed the maturity of provincial government departments in engaging with the extant IDMS and it formulated evidence based interventions to improve delivery and management of infrastructure projects. This was achieved through analysis of data obtained from the use of a nine-dimension Maturity Modelling Questionnaire and semi-structured Interviews. The results obtained were used to indicate Organizational Maturity on a 5-level scale where Level 1 is the initial/adhoc level which is indicative of a regressive organization with a complete lack of attributes and Level 5 is indicative of an optimized organization with world class attributes. An IDMS ready organization would ideally have a maturity rating at level 5. This study found that all three organizations that were surveyed had a maturity rating 3
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    Development of an assessment design model for inquiry based learning pedagogy in construction education in South Africa.
    (2020) Jaiyeola, Adesoji Tunbosun.; Harinarain, Nishani.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH Construction education in South Africa is in the main undertaken using positivist methodologies which are at the core of university education. Current construction curriculums present subjects and content in silos that have no connection to each other. Students therefore experience individual classes, sessions and content perceived to have no connection or relationship with each other. Also, in this positivist approach assessment tools generally take the form of tests, examinations, assignment and projects. Success in tests and examinations indicates to the lecturer that a student has learnt something. Conversely, failure in tests and examinations suggests that no learning has taken place at all. The student experience is therefore typically one of being a receptacle in which information is deposited. Construction programmes have responded to these criticisms by experimenting with various pedagogy approaches like inquiry based learning (IBL), to improve the quality and employability of their graduates while trying to narrow the gap between what academia produces and what industry needs. Consequently, engineering and science disciplines began shifting from the lecturebased classroom and assessment format to emphasise active, research-based, and problem-based student learning. It is within this context that several researchers have called for changes in the curriculum and assessment design. This study researched the problem that the current mode of assessments in construction education at undergraduate level does not adequately measure learning so does not prepare students for construction professional practice and therefore requires an alternative assessment design model which incorporates different contemporary theories of learning synergistically in an IBL pedagogical framework. The research followed a subjective ontological philosophy, a deductive research approach, a survey research strategy, a cross sectional time horizon and a data collection technique and procedure of a questionnaire using the non-probability sampling technique of convenient sampling. The research procedure included an extensive literature review of articles that fully discussed the use of inquiry for learning in an educational context. The search resulted in 49 articles. These articles were further reviewed to identify the common facets of Inquiry based learning pedagogy. Thirty-two facets were identified as the common and importance facets. The facets were reduced to 28 base on the frequency of appearance in the IBL articles. Delphi survey with 14 construction education experts was used to identify 18 facets as the most important and having the greatest impact on assessment design in Inquiry based learning pedagogy. These facets were used to develop a conceptual model. The developed conceptual model was refined and tested using student survey assessment questionnaire administered online to 563 undergraduate students studying construction programmes at six universities in South Africa. The data from the student survey were screened using the anomaly detection node in IBM SPSS Modeller v 27, excel and statistics before subjecting them to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using IBM SPSS v27. Subsequently, structural equation modelling (SEM) using IBM SPSS AMOS v27 was used to assess and validate the structural relationship among the research constructs. The results show that the 18 facets of IBL pedagogy directly and positively influence the development of effective assessment tools to measure learning and achieve effective learning in construction programmes in South Africa and the eight hypotheses between assessment design, facets of IBL and learning were also supported. Subsequently, an IBL assessment design framework for construction programmes was developed which integrate and relate theories of learning and IBL pedagogy to construction practice and learning. The assessment model provides a foundation for policy makers, lecturers, curriculum developers and other stake holders in the improvement of the quality of education in construction education by developing effective assessment tools. ABSTRACT IN ISIZULU Imfundo yezokwakha eNingizimu Afrika yiyona esemqoka eyenziwayo kusetshenziswa izindlela zokwenza okuhle okuyizinto ezisemqoka emfundweni ephakeme. Izifundo zamanje zokwakha ziveza izifundo nokuqukethwe kuma-silos angaxhumani. Ngakho-ke izitshudeni zithola amakilasi ngamanye, amaseshini nokuqukethwe okubonakala kungenakho ukuxhumana noma ubudlelwane komunye nomunye. Futhi, kulokhu amathuluzi wokuhlola indlela yokwenza okuhle ngokuvamile athatha uhlobo lwezivivinyo, izivivinyo, ukwabiwa kanye namaphrojekthi. Ukuphumelela ekuhlolweni nasezivivinyweni kukhombisa umfundisi ukuthi umfundi ufunde okuthile. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukwehluleka ekuhlolweni nasezivivinyweni kusikisela ukuthi akukho kufunda okwenzekile nhlobo. Okuhlangenwe nakho kwabafundi ngakho-ke ngokuvamile kungokwamukelwa lapho kufakwa khona imininingwane. Izinhlelo zokwakha ziphendulile kulokhu kugxeka ngokuzama izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokufundisa ezinjengokubuza okusekelwe ekufundeni (i-IBL), ukwenza ngcono izinga nokuqashwa kwabafundi babo ngenkathi bezama ukunciphisa igebe phakathi kwalokhu okwenziwa yizifundiswa nalokho okudingwa yimboni. Ngenxa yalokho, imikhakha yezobunjiniyela nesayensi yaqala ukusuka kufomethi esekwe ekilasini nasekuhloleni ukugcizelela ukufunda okusebenzayo, okususelwa ocwaningweni, nasekufundeni okususelwa ezinkingeni. Kungalesi simo lapho abacwaningi abaningana becele khona ushintsho kwikharikhulamu nakwindlela yokuhlola. Lo mqondo ucwaninge inkinga yokuthi indlela yamanje yokuhlola emfundweni yezokwakha ezingeni le-undergraduate ayilinganisi ngokwanele ukufunda ngakho-ke ayilungiseli abafundi ukwenza umsebenzi wobungcweti wokwakha ngakho-ke idinga enye indlela yokwakhiwa kokuhlola okubandakanya imicabango ehlukahlukene yesimanje yokufunda ngokuvumelana ku- IBL uhlaka lokufundisa. Ucwaningo lulandele ubuhlakani ye-epistemological positivist kanye nefilosofi ye-ontological, indlela yokucwaninga ehlukanisayo, isu lokucwaninga ngenhlolovo, ubude besikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kanye nenqubo yokuqoqa imininingwane nenqubo yohlu lwemibuzo kusetshenziswa inqubo engeyona engenzeka yesampula elula. Inqubo yocwaningo ibandakanya ukubuyekezwa okubanzi kwezindatshana ezikhuluma ngokugcwele ngokusetshenziswa kophenyo lokufunda kumongo wezemfundo. Ukusesha kuholele kuma-athikili angama-shumi amane nesishagplolunye. Lezi zihloko ziphinde zabuyekezwa ukuze kutholakale izici ezivamile zemfundo yokufunda esekwe kuphenyo. Izici ezingamashumi amathathu nambili zikhonjwe njengezici ezijwayelekile nokubaluleka. Ama-facets ancishisiwe abanga mashumi amabili nesishagalombili base kumvamisa wokuvela kuma-athikili e-IBL. Ucwaningo lweDelphi olunezazi eziyi-shumi nane zezemfundo yezokwakha lusetshenziselwe ukukhomba izici eziyishumi nesishagalombili njengezibaluleke kakhulu futhi ezinomthelela omkhulu ekwakhiweni kokuhlolwa ku-pedagogy yokufunda ngokusekelwe kuphenyo. Lezi zici zisetshenziselwe ukuthuthukisa imodeli yomqondo. Imodeli yomqondo esunguliwe yathuthukiswa futhi yahlolwa kusetshenziswa uhlu lwemibuzo lokuhlolwa kwabafundi olwenziwa nge-zobuchwepheshe kubafundi abangama-563 abafundela phansi abafunda izinhlelo zokwakha emanyuvesi ayisithupha eNingizimu Afrika. Imininingwane evela ocwaningweni lwabafundi ihlolwe kusetshenziswa i-anomaly detection node ku-IBM SPSS Modeller v 27, excel kanye nezibalo ngaphambi kokuzinikela ekuhlaziyweni kwezinto (EFA) kusetshenziswa i-IBM SPSS v27. Ngemuva kwalokho, imodeli yokulinganisa kwesakhiwo (i-SEM) isebenzisa i-IBM SPSS AMOS v27 isetshenziselwe ukuhlola nokuqinisekisa ubudlelwano besakhiwo phakathi kokwakhiwa kocwaningo. Imiphumela ikhombisa ukuthi izici eziyi-shumi nesishagalombili ze-IBL pedagogy ngqo futhi zinomthelela omuhle ekwakhiweni kwamathuluzi wokuhlola asebenzayo ukukala ukufunda nokufeza ukufunda okusebenzayo ezinhlelweni zokwakha eNingizimu Afrika kanye nemibono eyisishiyagalombili phakathi kokuklanywa kokuhlola, izici ze-IBL nokufunda nakho kwasekelwa. Ngemuva kwalokho, kwasungulwa uhlaka lokwakhiwa kokuhlolwa kwe-IBL lwezinhlelo zokwakha ezihlanganisa futhi zihlobanise imicabango yokufunda kanye ne-IBL pedagogy kumkhuba wokwakha nowokufunda. Imodeli yokuhlola inikeza isisekelo kubenzi benqubomgomo, abafundisi, abathuthukisi bekharikhulamu kanye nabanye ababambiqhaza ekuthuthukiseni izinga lemfundo kwezemfundo ngokwakha amathuluzi okuhlola asebenzayo.
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    A model for the successful completion of public sector construction and engineering projects in South Africa.
    (2020) Armoed, Zakheeya.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    The construction and engineering industry has regularly been described as suffering from poor performance such as time and schedule overruns, quality defects, poor health and safety performance, fragmentation, poor communications, adversarial relationships and lack of co-ordination between the various project stakeholders. There has been little written in the South African public sector context regarding the key operational strategies of responding to these challenges that pervade the sector. Prior to the implementation of any meaningful interventions or strategies for improvement can be developed, it is essential to gain an in-depth understanding of the nature and extent of current practices at the operational level in the South African public sector. It is important to acknowledge the foundational issues, so that effective solutions may be implemented to assist in the improvement of project delivery. Due to the ever-present challenges with public sector infrastructure delivery, it is of national importance to understand critical theories behind current practices and the role of industry stakeholders, if the effective implementation of proposed strategies is to occur. The construction and engineering industry is extremely project-centric, operating in an environment of great complexity and uncertainty which is exacerbated by fragmentation in the supply chain processes; stakeholder influences; complex project characteristics and challenges such as the poor flow of information, conflicts and disputes; socio-economic factors and national and global dynamics. Consequently, delays and disruptions have become endemic to the industry. Inapt strategies have resulted in further delays, disruptions, disputes and increased costs, with rising levels of dissatisfaction among clients and end users. Several studies have found that clients are becoming dissatisfied with the outcome of construction and engineering projects as their expectations have not been met. Reasons posited have included apart from the issues raised above, includes, lagging behind in technological advancement, the overall development of operational processes and not keeping abreast of societal and industry trends. This research study highlighted the nature and extent of the challenges, systemic bottlenecks and factors that result in delays, disruptions and strategies through six constructs and 38 factors that influence successful construction and engineering project delivery in the South African public sector. The findings concluded with the development of a Strategic Infrastructure Delivery Management Model for implementation by public sector institutions and key industry stakeholders, through the integrated of advanced technological software programs that reflect the five essential constructs and associated factors identified through extensive structural equation modelling.
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    Improved water infrastructure delivery and management model.
    (2020) Nkwonta, Onyeka Ifeanyi.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Water plays a vital role in poverty reduction, economic growth, business competitiveness and enhancement of societal living in developing countries in particular. Provision of infrastructure involves a complex process and utilizes considerable amount of resources including construction materials, energy, finance and time. Infrastructures have long life span and they could create long-term impact on the environment and society. To achieve efficient and equitable economic growth of economy is an important way of managing water. Better access to sanitation services, clean water and water management creates tremendous strategy for economic growth of any country. There is a close link between water and economic growth of country. Water Mangement brings more efficiency and certainty in productivity across the health of nation and contributes to economic. Water is a critical part of most environmental services on which our ecosystems depend. Water requires optimal management to control competition for use due to population growth and scarcity, climate change, increasing demand and declining water supplies. This research has attempted to develop a model for improving the delivery of water services in developing countries such as South Africa. The model lays a foundation for development of appropriate policies, regulations and procedures to improve water service delivery at EThekwini municipality. A triangulation approach was employed to develop the model using Delphi method and a structured questionnaire survey. The Delphi study involved three rounds with ten experts participating in all rounds until consensus was achieved. After the Delphi study, a conceptual model was developed and validated using data collected from experienced professionals that deals with water infrastructures at EThekwini metro. The data collection was based on convenience sampling where 306 questionnaire were distributed and 210 complete responses were received. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Maximum Likelihood with Promax rotation were used to determine the validity and reliability of the nine constructs of the conceptual model. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using AMOS, software program to further test validity and reliability of constructs. The findings revealed that the structural model data was acceptable and eight out of eight hypotheses tested were significant. The findings of this research indicates that stakeholders in Civil Engineering and construction industry have to improve their delivery practice in order to deliver good water services in the context of developing countries such as South Africa and also the work has contributed to the evolving current body of knowledge in the area of Water management and delivery. ISIZULU ABSTRACT: Amanzi adlala indima ebalulekile ekwehliseni ubuphofu, ukukhula komnotho, ukuncintisana kwamabhizinisi kanye nokwenza ngcono impilo yomphakathi emazweni asathuthuka ikakhulukazi. Ukuhlinzekwa kwengqalasizinda kubandakanya inqubo eyinkimbinkimbi futhi kusebenzisa inani elikhulu lezinsizakusebenza kubandakanya izinto zokwakha, amandla, ezezimali kanye nesikhathi. Ingqalasizinda inesikhathi eside sokuphila futhi ingadala umthelela wesikhathi eside emvelweni nasemphakathini. Ukuphatha amanzi njengenzuzo yezomnotho kuyindlela ebalulekile yokuthola ukukhula komnotho okusebenzayo futhi okulinganayo. Ukutholakala okungcono kwamanzi ahlanzekile, izinsizakalo zokuthuthwa kwendle nokuphathwa kwamanzi kudala isu elikhulu lokukhula komnotho wezwe. Kukhona ukuxhumana okusondele phakathi kwamanzi nokukhula komnotho wezwe. Ukuphathwa kahle kwezinsizakusebenza zamanzi kuletha ukuqiniseka okuthe xaxa nokusebenza kahle komkhiqizo kuyo yonke imikhakha yezomnotho futhi kuneqhaza empilweni yesizwe. Amanzi ayingxenye ebalulekile yezinsizakalo eziningi zemvelo lapho imvelo yethu incike khona. Amanzi adinga ukuphathwa okuphelele ukulawula ukushoda nokuncintisana kokusetshenziswa ngenxa yokwanda kwabantu, ukwanda kwesidingo, ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nokwehla kokuphakelwa kwamanzi. Lolu cwaningo luzame ukusungula imodeli yokwenza ngcono ukulethwa kwezinsizakalo zamanzi emazweni asathuthuka njengeNingizimu Afrika. Le modeli ibeka isisekelo sokwakhiwa kwezinqubomgomo, imithethonqubo kanye nezinqubo ezifanele zokuthuthukisa ukulethwa kwezidingo kumasipala weTheku. Kwasetshenziswa indlela yoonxantathu ukuthuthukisa imodeli kusetshenziswa indlela yeDelphi kanye nocwaningo lwemibuzo oluhleliwe. Ucwaningo lweDelphi lubandakanye imizuliswano emithathu nochwepheshe abayishumi ababambe iqhaza kuyo yonke imizuliswano kuze kutholakale ukuvumelana. Ngemuva kocwaningo lwaseDelphi, kwasungulwa imodeli yokuqagela yaqinisekiswa ngokusebenzisa imininingwane eqoqwe kochwepheshe abanolwazi ababhekene nengqalasizinda yamanzi kuMasipala weTheku. Ukuqoqwa kwedatha kwakususelwa kusampula elula kwakukhona imibuzo yemibuzo engama-306 nokusatshalaliswa izimpendulo eziphelele ezingama-210. Ukuhlaziywa kwesici sokuhlola (i-EFA) kusetshenziswa inguqulo ye- Statistical Package yeSayensi Yezenhlalakahle (SPSS) kusetshenziswa Ubukhulu obukhulu ngokushintshana kwePromax kusetshenziselwe ukuthola ubuqiniso nokwethembeka kokwakhiwa okuyisishiyagalolunye kwemodeli yomqondo. Ukuhlaziywa kwesici sokuqinisekisa (i-CFA) kwenziwa ngokusebenzisa i-, uhlelo lwesoftware ukuqhubekisela phambili ukuvivinya ubuqiniso nokwethembeka kokwakhiwa. Okutholakele kuveze ukuthi idatha yemodeli yokwakhiwa yamukelekile futhi yonke imicabango eyi-9 ehlolwe ibalulekile. Okutholwe yilolu cwaningo okubandakanya ukunikela okusebenzayo, okwezemfundo Kanye nokwenziwa kwemigwaqo kunomthelela omkhulu ekuthuthukisweni kolwazi lwamanje endaweni yokuthuthukisa ukulethwa kwezinsizakalo zamanzi emazweni asathuthuka njengeNingizimu Afrika.
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    An improved service delivery model through the implementation of the FIDPM in the South African public sector.
    (2021) Sirbadhoo, Neil.; Harinarain, Nishani.
    The most import issue in South Africa remains, improving the delivery of public services, as any democratic society needs to exhibit efficient, equitable and accountable public service. Public service delivery challenges still experienced in 2021 were the same raised in previous years regarding capacity and skills shortages with public servants. The main challenge which affects infrastructure management and delivery has been the unevenness in capacity that leads to uneven performance in local, provincial and national government. Although the infrastructure delivery management system (IDMS) has made relatively good progress when implemented through provincial treasuries and provincial departments, it has not been sufficiently institutionalised in most departments. The implementation and sustainability of the IDMS stills remains a challenge. Government through National Treasury has released the Framework for Infrastructure Delivery and Procurement Management (FIDPM) as an initiative towards ensuring a systematic and structured approach for infrastructure procurement and delivery management for the successful delivery of construction projects. The Framework for Infrastructure Delivery and Procurement Management recognises that project management plays a critical role in the delivery of public services in South Africa as all spheres of government structures implement and deliver services. While it is argued, the public sector is less innovative than the private sector, project management plays an important role towards innovative delivery approaches in public service. Arguably the main driver behind the application of project management in government is to improve state institution’s ability to deliver efficient, effective and high-quality services. In the third decade of the countries post-apartheid constitutional democracy, serious concern has been raised about the government and its ability to deliver public services that its citizens are entitled to. The research aimed to develop a model to improve service delivery in the public sector. The aim was achieved through an in-depth literature review to identify factors that drive service delivery on public sector projects. Three drivers (the public sector, government policies, frameworks and the FIDPM, and project management tools and techniques), with 19 unobserved variables and 192 indicators were identified. Through an iterative Delphi technique, a panel of experts was used to validate the factors identified in the literature review. The panel of experts reached consensus after three iterations on 160 items which were grouped under the three drivers. A conceptual model was developed based on the Delphi study. The proposed improved service delivery model was tested nationally using a self-administered survey questionnaire. Four hundred and ten responses were received. Thereafter the model was subjected to attentive multivariate analysis which included exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and path modelling using SPSS version 27 and Amos version 26. The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the drivers, namely, the public sector, government policies, frameworks and the FIDPM, and PM tools and techniques for improved service delivery were valid and reliable and further showed positive and strong relationships to the respective drivers. Thereafter, the confirmatory factor analysis validated the hypothesised factors on the three drivers. Structural equation modelling analysed and assessed the hypothesised path between the drivers and dependent variables in the model for practicality and significance. Out of a total of 22 tested hypotheses, eight (36.36%) were statistically supported. These were presented in a final path diagram which depicted the relationships between the hypothesised paths were practical and significant. The outcomes recorded in this study add to the body of knowledge on an important service delivery framework that is in its infancy of implementation in South Africa. The findings highlighted the role of the public sector and its efforts towards addressing service delivery in South Africa are alarming. However, through numerous policies and frameworks developed by government over the recent decades, service delivery challenges are still present. The implementation of the FIDPM has not yet seen any improvements to service delivery that previous policies and frameworks have failed to address. Project management has been identified as a key area of expertise that may assist government through the application of project management tools and techniques, enhance the implementation of the FIDPM towards improving service delivery on public sector projects.
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    A policy framework for the implementation of sustainable construction in Nigeria.
    (2020) Babalola, Ayotunde Anthony.; Harinarain, Nishani.
    The practice of sustainable construction improves the quality of life of the citizenry. Based on the need to realise the tripod of economic, environmental and sociological improvements, many countries have realised the need to develop individual policies and plans to attain sustainability especially within the construction industry. While patterns of improvements and adequate policies are noticed in some developed countries, a lot of developing economies still grapple with the policy development stage for improved and sustainable construction patterns. Policies constitute the backbone on which decisions are made, practice is predicated and regulated, and it was thus expedient to demonstrate the effects of policies on sustainable construction practice especially in the context of developing countries. This study developed a policy model for the implementation of sustainable construction practice in Nigeria. The model lays a foundation for policy development and industry transition towards sustainable construction. Based on in-depth literature reviews on sustainable construction practices in both developed and developing economies and policy development and practice in selected model countries, a conceptual model was developed. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted in addition to two separate focus group discussions with seasoned construction professionals in the capital cities of Abuja and Lagos in Nigeria to confirm the outcomes from the literature review, gain a deeper understanding in a qualitative nature and refine the draft quantitative study instrument. Data obtained at this stage was analysed using Nvivo 12. The data collection was based on probability sampling where 380 questionnaires were distributed, and 249 complete responses were received. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27 using Maximum likelihood with promax rotation was used to determine the validity and reliability of the four constructs of the conceptual model. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using AMOS Version 27 software programme to further test validity and reliability of constructs. The CFA revealed acceptable model fit of the measurement model after re-specification of some of the measurement models. At the end, the second order model was tested to determine the relationship among the constructs. The findings revealed that the data was acceptable, and all the four hypotheses tested were found to be significant. The findings of this research which include identifying the clear roles of the government as both a regulator of the industry and as a client for public infrastructure, relevant stakeholders in the industry and implementation patterns for sustainable construction practice have practical, academic, and methodological contributions to the evolving current body of knowledge in the area of policy development for sustainable construction practice specifically in the context of developing countries.
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    The study of process health and safety management deficiencies relative to hazardous chemical exposure.
    (2019) Nyawera, James Xolani.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    The main objectives of this study were to identify the main process health and safety management deficiencies that require senior management’s attention. To identify the critical drivers that could be used to improve health and safety to reach generative process health and safety culture level five and to develop a model of effectively managing hazardous chemical substance exposure in the petrochemical industry. Ethical clearance to conduct the study was obtained from the University of KwaZulu - Natal Humanities and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (HSS/1094/018D). The targeted population was 800 employees in one major petrochemical enterprise in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The study was conducted by distributing 400 questionnaires manually to the randomly selected potential participants of which 259 were returned duly completed and used. The returned questionnaires were statistically analysed using descriptive statistics in SPSS version 25. The research was planned to first explore the concepts by qualitative research methods, such as in depth literature review. The quantitative data collection and analysis is based on a quantitative research method involving questionnaire survey and statistical data analysis methods. The validation of the findings and related conclusions rely on the results from both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The mixed method was considered the best option for this study as it assisted to leverage the advantages of both quantitative and qualitative research methods in achieving the research objectives. The key process health and safety management deficiencies to be prioritized are, namely, poor engineering design integrity, poor controls when working with suspended loads, poor controls when working at heights, poor housekeeping, poor controls of source of ignition, verifying energy isolation before starting to work on equipment, poor health and safety risk assessments, handling of hazardous chemicals, human error and fatigue management. The key process health and safety drivers to be prioritized for generative process health and safety culture are, leadership commitment, chemical exposure management, health and safety risk assessment, process hazard analysis and permit to work. The developed generative process health and safety culture model was subjected to rigorous measurement analysis using structural equation modelling, namely, principal component analysis, goodness-of-fit measure, assessment of normality, discriminant validity, multicollinearity, model adequacy, reliability and validity. This study will assist senior management with a framework to reduce process health and safety incidents in the petrochemical industry and improve health and safety towards generative culture where organisations say, “Health and safety is the way we do business”.
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    Development of a client-driven health and safety model for measuring health and safety performance of construction projects in south africa.
    (2020) Khoza, Joseph Dumizulu.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    The construction industry plays a vital role in the world economy. A labour-intensive sector creates the most employment opportunities for unskilled and semi-skilled workers from impoverished local communities. The activities of the construction industry affect all aspects of the economy and drive the economic growth of many countries; it makes use of materials procured from other industries – making it one of the sectors indirectly contributing to employment creation in other sectors. Despite its vital role and contribution to economic growth, the construction industry remains a hazardous sector where the most vulnerable (unskilled and semi-skilled) workers are continually involved in serious construction accidents. Although there have been interventions by various stakeholders to deal with this problem, the results remain unacceptable with accidents persisting in the industry. Notwithstanding significant effort by business associations, researchers, construction clients and contractors to deal with the unsatisfactory health and safety (H&S) performance in the construction industry, the situation has not improved. There is consensus amongst researchers that the involvement by clients throughout all of the project phases can lead to improvement in the health and safety performance of construction projects. Over the past few years various studies dealing with client influence in construction project health and safety performance have reported several methods in which construction clients can improve this aspect on project sites; however, very few studies have developed models to assist the industry in improving health and safety of these projects. Lack of effective involvement by clients has contributed to the construction industry’s extremely high number of accidents that occur on a daily basis, resulting in medical treatment cases, lost time incidents, fatalities and damage to property. The objective of this study was to develop a client-driven health and safety rating model (CHSRM) for the measurement of health and safety performance that can be used by construction clients to improve project health and safety performance. The relationship between involvement of clients in construction projects and health and safety performance was investigated and the extent to which South African construction clients are involved in projects was examined. Results from the literature reviewed identified the attitudes by clients towards health and safety overall, the communication attitudes by clients towards health and safety, the selection of contractors, the involvement of clients before and during construction, contractual health and safety arrangement and monitoring of health and safety performance by contractors, as critical factors associated with involvement of clients in construction projects and health and safety improvements. It was conceptualised that these critical factors can be used as building blocks for the CHSRM. Using the framework of factors from previous studies, a survey method was adopted for this study. A questionnaire was designed for respondents to assess the extent to which construction clients were involved in construction project health and safety in projects they had managed and to evaluate the health and safety performance of those projects. Results from data collected across 135 large-size construction projects in South Africa were analysed using descriptive statistics. The first results from the questionnaire relate to the degree to which construction clients are involved in the project health and safety. They show that the attitudes of clients and their communication attitudes towards health and safety, selection of contractors, contractual health and safety arrangement and the monitoring of health and safety performance of contractors were found to be satisfactory and common in the construction industry. However, involvement by clients before and during construction was found to be unsatisfactory. The second results relate to whether there is a relationship between client involvement and project health and safety performance. A survey was designed for respondents to assess the performance of projects they had participated in and to evaluate their performance by providing data using lagging indicators. The relationship between the six constructs with each of the project health and safety performance indicators was tested using correlation analysis. The results show that all of the constructs have a high significant positive correlation at p<0.001. Furthermore, they show that the first aid incident rate and all incident frequency rate indicators of project health and safety performance are not influenced by any of the research variables. The medical treatment incident frequency rate, lost time incident frequency rate and recordable case rate indicators of project performance are all influenced by selection of contractors and contractual health and safety arrangement. Based on the results of the study, the client-driven occupational health and safety measurement model seemed to be justifiable. The results from previous studies provided a theoretical basis to construct a model for this study using the critical health and safety factors. It was hypothesised that attitude of clients towards health and safety, their communication attitude towards health and safety, their involvement before and during construction, selection of contractors, contractual health and safety arrangement and the monitoring of health and safety performance of contractors, have a direct influence on project health and safety performance. These hypotheses were tested and verified using Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modelling (CB-SEM). Contrary to the findings of the previous studies, the final CB-SEM results suggested that the contractual health and safety arrangement is the only construct which has a direct effect on project health and safety performance. Mediation hypothesis was performed revealing that the attitude, communication and selection of contractors based on their historical health and safety performance have an indirect effect of project health and safety performance. The final model was validated by CHS experts who were asked to review the proposed model and to rate the extent to which they agree/disagree with the statements that described the model in terms of its applicability, effectiveness and adaptability in the construction industry. The key finding was that CHSRM was acceptable. The study has contributed to knowledge by deepening the understanding of the critical elements to health and safety beyond those considered in previous studies. The significance of the study was that construction clients could use CHSRM before and during the construction process. It has also highlighted the urgent need for construction clients to change the traditional mind-set that health and safety is only the responsibility of construction contractors. The results of the study have confirmed that involvement by clients throughout the phases of the project could lead to improvement in project health and safety. Future studies should be conducted using a larger sample size to improve the application of the model in the construction industry. The survey instrument indicator variables may be refined to suit specific project environments.
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    Curriculum development for an inquiry approach to construction education.
    (2019) Zulu, Ephraim.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.
    University graduates have been criticised for failing to make a meaningful contribution to professional practice in the construction industry in South Africa and across the world generally. Deficiencies have been reported in the ability of graduates of construction programmes to think critically, solve problems or apply theoretical knowledge in practical situations. Among other factors, the traditional didactic lecture approach to teaching and learning has been blamed for not providing students with an appropriate learning experience to adequately prepare them for professional practice. This is because the didactic lecture approach is characterised by attempts to transmit knowledge from the lecturer to the student which has been found to be inadequate in achieving effective learning. The traditional didactic approach to teaching is based on theories of learning which assumed that knowledge can be transmitted from the minds of lecturers to the minds of students. Contemporary theories of learning have rebuffed this assumption and demonstrated that knowledge and understanding are achieved by students actively engaging with the study material and constructing their own knowledge structures rather than passively receiving knowledge and understanding. Based on these contemporary theories of learning, several different pedagogy has been suggested and incorporated in educational practice. However, predominantly, contemporary pedagogy has been haphazardly applied within the traditional framework of segregated modules. Also, different pedagogy based on different contemporary theories has been researched and applied independent of each other. This has led to some contradictions in some pedagogy and a lack of synergistic collaboration among the contemporary pedagogy. Against this background, this thesis researched the problem that the traditional didactic lecture teaching approach to construction education at undergraduate level does not adequately prepare students for construction professional practice and therefore requires an alternative curriculum model which incorporates different contemporary theories of learning synergistically in a student centred inquiry based learning (IBL) pedagogical framework. To achieve this, the research established factors from the contemporary theories of learning which significantly contribute to the creation of knowledge structures in students studying construction programmes in South Africa. Subsequently the research proposed a curriculum model for construction programmes which incorporated the identified antecedents to effective learning underpinned in the contemporary pedagogical framework of IBL. The research followed a positivist epistemological philosophy and a subjective ontological philosophy, a deductive research approach, a survey research strategy, a cross sectional time horizon and a data collection technique and procedure of a questionnaire using the non-probability sampling technique of convenient sampling. The research procedure included an extensive literature review of three contemporary theories of learning namely, constructivism from philosophy, connectionism from behaviourism and cognitive load theory from cognitive science. Subsequently, an instrument measuring the concepts from the conceptual model was developed, pre-tested and then administered to undergraduate students studying construction programmes at a convenient sample of public universities in South Africa. The results show that the factors from the three contemporary theories of learning which directly influence the extent to which students studying construction programmes are able to create knowledge structures and achieve effective learning are individual learning, scaffolding, reflective thinking and group learning in that order. Repetition, reinforcement, readiness, self-directed learning and the use of worked examples have indirect relationships with the ability for students to create knowledge structures. Complex questions and authentic questions were also found to indirectly contribute to effective learning. Cognitive loading was found to interfere with learning and complex questions were found to induce cognitive loading while authentic questions did not. Subsequently, an IBL curriculum framework for construction programmes was proposed which integrated most of the topics which directly relate to construction practice. Based on the findings, the IBL class should involve students in both individual and group learning activities which should be appropriately scaffolded and students explicitly directed towards reflective thinking as they engage in the IBL projects. Complex questions and authentic questions should be used in collaboration with extra scaffolding in order to reduce the impact of the consequent cognitive loading induced by complex questions. The IBL projects should be simple initially and increase in complexity as the student’s advance.