# Masters Degrees (Pure Mathematics)

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Item Iterative approximation of solutions of some optimization problems in Banach spaces.(2018) Oyewole, Olawale Kazeem.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a q-uniformly smooth Banach space X which admits a weakly sequentially continuous generalized duality mapping. In this dissertation, we study the approximation of the zero of a strongly accretive operator A : X ! X which is also a xed point of a k-strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping T of C: Also, we introduce a U-mapping for nite family of mixed equilibrium problems involving relaxed monotone operators. We prove a strong convergence theorem for nding a common solution of nite family of these equilibrium problems in a uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach space. We present some applications of this theorem and a numerical example. Furthermore, due to the faster rate of convergence of inertial type algorithm, we propose an inertial type iterative algorithm and prove a weak convergence theorem of the scheme to a solution of split variational inclusion problems involving accretive operators in Banach spaces. We give some applications and a numerical example to show the relevance of our result. Our results in this dissertation extend and improve some recent results in the literature.Show more Item Iterative algorithms for approximating solutions of some optimization problems in Hadamard spaces.(2019) Ogwo, Grace Nnennaya.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more Abstract available in PDF.Show more Item Iterative schemes for approximating common solutions of certain optimization and fixed point problems in Hilbert spaces.(2021) Olona, Musa Adewale.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more In this dissertation, we introduce a shrinking projection method of an inertial type with self-adaptive step size for finding a common element of the set of solutions of Split Gen- eralized Equilibrium Problem (SGEP) and the set of common fixed points of a countable family of nonexpansive multivalued mappings in real Hilbert spaces. The self-adaptive step size incorporated helps to overcome the difficulty of having to compute the operator norm while the inertial term accelerates the rate of convergence of the propose algorithm. Under standard and mild conditions, we prove a strong convergence theorem for the sequence generated by the proposed algorithm and obtain some consequent results. We apply our result to solve Split Mixed Variational Inequality Problem (SMVIP) and Split Minimiza- tion Problem (SMP), and present numerical examples to illustrate the performance of our algorithm in comparison with other existing algorithms. Moreover, we investigate the problem of finding common solutions of Equilibrium Problem (EP), Variational Inclusion Problem (VIP)and Fixed Point Problem (FPP) for an infinite family of strict pseudo- contractive mappings. We propose an iterative scheme which combines inertial technique with viscosity method for approximating common solutions of these problems in Hilbert spaces. Under mild conditions, we prove a strong theorem for the proposed algorithm and apply our results to approximate the solutions of other optimization problems. Finally, we present a numerical example to demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithm in comparison with other existing methods in the literature. Our results improve and complement contemporary results in the literature in this direction.Show more Item Filter characterisations of the extendibility of continuous functions.(1991) Maltby, Gavin Richard.; Swart, Johan.Show more Abstract available in PDF.Show more Item Self-adaptive inertial algorithms for approximating solutions of split feasilbility, monotone inclusion, variational inequality and fixed point problems.(2020) Owolabi, Abd-semii Oluwatosin-Enitan.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more In this dissertation, we introduce a self-adaptive hybrid inertial algorithm for approximating a solution of split feasibility problem which also solves a monotone inclusion problem and a fixed point problem in p-uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces. We prove a strong convergence theorem for the sequence generated by our algorithm which does not require a prior knowledge of the norm of the bounded linear operator. Numerical examples are given to compare the computational performance of our algorithm with other existing algorithms. Moreover, we present a new iterative algorithm of inertial form for solving Monotone Inclusion Problem (MIP) and common Fixed Point Problem (FPP) of a finite family of demimetric mappings in a real Hilbert space. Motivated by the Armijo line search technique, we incorporate the inertial technique to accelerate the convergence of the proposed method. Under standard and mild assumptions of monotonicity and Lipschitz continuity of the MIP associated mappings, we establish the strong convergence of the iterative algorithm. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the performance of our method as well as comparing it with the non-inertial version and some related methods in the literature. Furthermore, we propose a new modified self-adaptive inertial subgradient extragradient algorithm in which the two projections are made onto some half spaces. Moreover, under mild conditions, we obtain a strong convergence of the sequence generated by our proposed algorithm for approximating a common solution of variational inequality problems and common fixed points of a finite family of demicontractive mappings in a real Hilbert space. The main advantages of our algorithm are: strong convergence result obtained without prior knowledge of the Lipschitz constant of the the related monotone operator, the two projections made onto some half-spaces and the inertial technique which speeds up rate of convergence. Finally, we present an application and a numerical example to illustrate the usefulness and applicability of our algorithm.Show more Item Locally conformal almost kenmotsu manifolds.(2019) Maduna, Snethemba Hlobisile.; Massamba, Fortuné.Show more Item On amenability properties of some closed ideals of B(X)(2018) Buthelezi, Thabo Njabulo.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more Abstract available in PDF file.Show more Item On the geometry of CR-manifolds.(2015) Mazibuko, Langelihle.; Massamba, Fortuné.Show more We study two classes of CR-submanifolds in Kählerian and cosymplectic manifolds. More precisely, we compare the geometry of CR-submanifolds of the above two underlying smooth manifolds. We derive expressions relat- ing the sectional curvatures, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrability of distributions. Further, we study totally umbilical, totally geodesic and foliation geometry of the CR-submanifolds of both spaces and found many interesting results. We prove that, under some condition, there are classes CR submanifold in cosymplectic space forms which are in the classes extrinsic spheres. Examples are given throughout the thesis.Show more Item Iterative algorithms for approximating solutions of variational inequality problems and monotone inclusion problems.(2017) Chinedu, Izuchukwu.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more In this work, we introduce and study an iterative algorithm independent of the operator norm for approximating a common solution of split equality variational inequality prob- lem and split equality xed point problem. Using our algorithm, we state and prove a strong convergence theorem for approximating an element in the intersection of the set of solutions of a split equality variational inequality problem and the set of solutions of a split equality xed point problem for demicontractive mappings in real Hilbert spaces. We then considered nite families of split equality variational inequality problems and proposed an iterative algorithm for approximating a common solution of this problem and the multiple-sets split equality xed point problem for countable families of multivalued type-one demicontractive-type mappings in real Hilbert spaces. A strong convergence re- sult of the sequence generated by our proposed algorithm to a solution of this problem was also established. We further extend our study from the frame work of real Hilbert spaces to more general p-uniformly convex Banach spaces which are also uniformly smooth. In this space, we introduce an iterative algorithm and prove a strong convergence theorem for approximating a common solution of split equality monotone inclusion problem and split equality xed point problem for right Bregman strongly nonexpansive mappings. Finally, we presented numerical examples of our theorems and applied our results to study the convex minimization problems and equilibrium problems.Show more Item Some amenability properties on segal algebras.(2017) Olanipekun, Peter Olamide.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more It has been realized that the definition of amenability given by B. E. Johnson in his Classical Memoir of American Mathematical Society in 1972 is too restrictive and does not allow for the development of a rich general theory. For this reason, by relaxing some of the constraints in the definition of amenability via restricting the class of bimodules in question or by relaxing the structure of the derivations, various notions of amenability have been introduced after the pioneering work of Johnson on amenability in Banach algebras. This dissertation is focused on six of these notions of amenability in Banach algebras, namely: contractibility, amenability, weak amenability, generalized amenability, character amenability and character contractibility. The first five of these notions are studied on arbitrary Banach algebras and the last two are studied on some classes of Segal algebras. In particular, results on hereditary properties and several characterizations of these notions are reviewed and discussed. Indeed, we discussed the equivalent of these notions with the existence of a bounded approximate diagonal, virtual diagonal, splitting of exact sequences of Banach bimodules and the existence of a certain Hahn-Banach extension property. Also, some relations that exist between these notions of amenability are also established. We show that approximate contractibility and approximate amenability are equivalent. Some conditions under which the amenability of the underlying group of a Segal algebra implies the character amenability of the Segal algebras are also given. Finally, some new results are obtained which serves as our contribution to knowledge.Show more Item On pseudo-amenability of C(X;A) for norm irregular Banach algebra A.(2017) Adiele, Ugochukwu.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more Abstract available in PDF file.Show more Item Some notions of amenability of Banach semigroup algebras.(2017) Adebayo, Mebawondu Akindele.; Mewomo, Oluwatosin Temitope.Show more Abstract available in PDF file.Show more Item On the null geometry of quasi generalized CR-submanifolds of indefinite nearly α-Sasakian manifolds.(2017) Ssekajja, Samuel.; Massamba, Fortuné.Show more Generalized CR (GCR)-lightlike submanifolds of indefinite almost contact manifolds were introduced by K. L. Duggal and B. Sahin, with the assumption that they are tangent to the structure vector field ξ of the almost contact structure (φ,η,ξ ). Contrary to the above assumption, we have introduced and studied a new class of CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite nearly α-Sasakian manifold, called quasi generalized CR (QGCR)-lightlike submanifold. We have showed that QGCR-lightlike submanifold include; ascreen QGCR, co-screen QGCR and the well known GCR-lightlike submanifolds. We have proved some existence (or non-existence) theorems and provided a thorough study of geometry of their distributions. Also, we have constructed many examples, where necessary, to illustrate the main ideas.Show more Item Mathematical modeling of R5 and X4 HIV : from within host dynamics to the epidemiology of HIV infection.Manda, Edna C.; Chirove, Faraimunashe.Show more Most existing models have considered the immunological processes occurring within the host and the epidemiological processes occurring at population level as decoupled systems. We present a new model using continuous systems of non linear ordinary differential equations by directly linking the within host dynamics capturing the interactions between Langerhans cells, CD4+ T-Cells, R5 HIV and X4 HIV and the without host dynamics of a basic compartmental HIV/AIDS, susceptible, infected, AIDS model. The model captures the biological theories of the cells that take part in HIV transmission. The study incorporates in its analysis the differences in time scales of the fast within host dynamics and the slow without host dynamics. In the mathematical analysis, important thresholds, the reproduction numbers, were computed which are useful in predicting the progression of the infection both within the host and without the host. The study results showed that the model exhibits four within host equilibrium points inclusive of three endemic equilibria whose effects translate into different scenarios at the population level. All the endemic equilibria were shown to be globally stable using Lyapunov functions and this is an important result in linking the within host dynamics to the population dynamics, because the disease free equilibrium point ceases to exist. The linked models had no effect on the basic reproduction numbers of the within host dynamics but on the basic reproduction number of the population dynamics. The effects of linking were observed on the endemic equilibrium points of both the within host and population dynamics. Therefore, linking the two dynamics leads to the increase in the viral load within the host and increase in the epidemic levels in the population dynamics.Show more Item On Huppert Conjecture for some quasi-simple groups.(2014) Majozi, Philani Rodney.; TongViet, Hung P.; Massamba, Fortuné.Show more Abstract available in PDF file.Show more Item Lie symmetries of junction conditions for radiating stars.(2011) Abebe, Gezahegn Zewdie.; Govinder, Keshlan Sathasiva.; Maharaj, Sunil Dutt.Show more We consider shear-free radiating spherical stars in general relativity. In particular we study the junction condition relating the pressure to the heat flux at the boundary of the star. This is a nonlinear equation in the metric functions. We analyse the junction condition when the spacetime is conformally flat, and when the particles are travelling in geodesic motion. We transform the governing equation using the method of Lie analysis. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are identifed and we generate the optimal system in each case. Each element of the optimal system is used to reduce the partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation which is further analysed. As a result, particular solutions to the junction condition are presented. These exact solutions can be presented in terms of elementary functions. Many of the solutions found are new and could be useful in the modelling process. Our analysis is the first comprehensive treatment of the boundary condition using a symmetry approach. We have shown that this approach is useful in generating new results.Show more Item Continuous symmetries of difference equations.(2011) Nteumagne, Bienvenue Feugang.; Govinder, Keshlan Sathasiva.Show more We consider the study of symmetry analysis of difference equations. The original work done by Lie about a century ago is known to be one of the best methods of solving differential equations. Lie's theory of difference equations on the contrary, was only first explored about twenty years ago. In 1984, Maeda [42] constructed the similarity methods for difference equations. Some work has been done in the field of symmetries of difference equations for the past years. Given an ordinary or partial differential equation (PDE), one can apply Lie algebra techniques to analyze the problem. It is commonly known that the number of independent variables can be reduced after the symmetries of the equation are obtained. One can determine the optimal system of the equation in order to get a reduction of the independent variables. In addition, using the method, one can obtain new solutions from known ones. This feature is interesting because some differential equations have apparently useless trivial solutions, but applying Lie symmetries to them, more interesting solutions are obtained. The question arises when it happens that our equation contains a discrete quantity. In other words, we aim at investigating steps to be performed when we have a difference equation. Doing so, we find symmetries of difference equations and use them to linearize and reduce the order of difference equations. In this work, we analyze the work done by some researchers in the field and apply their results to some examples. This work will focus on the topical review of symmetries of difference equations and going through that will enable us to make some contribution to the field in the near future.Show more Item On the theory of the frobenius groups.(2012) Perumal, Pragladan.; Moori, Jamshid.Show more The Frobenius group is an example of a split extension. In this dissertation we study and describe the properties and structure of the group. We also describe the properties and structure of the kernel and complement, two non-trivial subgroups of every Frobenius group. Examples of Frobenius groups are included and we also describe the characters of the group. Finally we construct the Frobenius group 292 : SL(2, 5) and then compute it's Fischer matrices and character table.Show more Item On free convection and heat transfer in a micropolar fluid flow past a moving semi-infinite plate.(2012) Tessema, Kassahun Mengist.; Sibanda, Precious.Show more In this dissertation we investigate free convective heat and mass transfer in micropolar fluid flow past a moving semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of a magnetic field. The aim of this study was to use recent semi-numerical methods such as the successive linearisation method and the spectral-homotopy analysis method to study the effects of viscous heating and the effects of different fluid parameters. The governing boundary layer equations for linear momentum, angular momentum (microrotation), temperature and concentration profiles are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations and solved using the successive linearisation method and the spectral-homotopy analysis method. The accuracy of the solutions was determined by comparison with numerical approximations obtained using the Matlab bvp4c solver. The influences of the micropolar parameter, Darcy number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, magnetic parameter, heat absorption parameter, Soret and Dufour numbers, local Reynolds number and Grashof number on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles were determined. The results obtained are presented graphically and in tabular form.Show more Item Evolutionary dynamics of coexisting species.(2000) Muir, Peter William.; Apaloo, Joseph.; Hearne, John W.Show more Ever since Maynard-Smith and Price first introduced the concept of an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) in 1973, there has been a growing amount of work in and around this field. Many new concepts have been introduced, quite often several times over, with different acronyms by different authors. This led to other authors trying to collect and collate the various terms (for example Lessard, 1990 & Eshel, 1996) in order to promote better understanding ofthe topic. It has been noticed that dynamic selection did not always lead to the establishment of an ESS. This led to the development ofthe concept ofa continuously stable strategy (CSS), and the claim that dynamic selection leads to the establishment of an ESSif it is a CSS. It has since been proved that this is not always the case, as a CSS may not be able to displace its near neighbours in pairwise ecological competitions. The concept of a neighbourhood invader strategy (NIS) was introduced, and when used in conjunction with the concept of an ESS, produced the evolutionary stable neighbourhood invader strategy (ESNIS) which is an unbeatable strategy. This work has tried to extend what has already been done in this field by investigating the dynamics of coexisting species, concentrating on systems whose dynamics are governed by Lotka-Volterra competition models. It is proved that an ESNIS coalition is an optimal strategy which will displace any size and composition of incumbent populations, and which will be immune to invasions by any other mutant populations, because the ESNIS coalition, when it exists, is unique. It has also been shown that an ESNIS coalition cannot exist in an ecologically stable state with any finite number of strategies in its neighbourhood. The equilibrium population when the ESNIS coalition is the only population present is globally stable in a n-dimensional system (for finite n), where the ESNIS coalition interacts with n - 2 other strategies in its neighbourhood. The dynamical behaviour of coexisting species was examined when the incumbent species interacted with various invading species. The different behaviour ofthe incumbent population when invaded by a coalition using either an ESNIS or an NIS phenotype underlines the difference in the various strategies. Similar simulations were intended for invaders who were using an ESS phenotype, but unfortunately the ESS coalition could not be found. If the invading coalition use NIS phenotypes then the outcome is not certain. Some, but not all of the incumbents might become extinct, and the degree to which the invaders flourish is very dependent on the nature ofthe incumbents. However, if the invading species form an ESNIS coalition, one is certain of the outcome. The invaders will eliminate the incumbents, and stabilise at their equilibrium populations. This will occur regardless of the composition and number of incumbent species, as the ESNIS coalition forms a globally stable equilibrium point when it is at its equilibrium populations, with no other species present. The only unknown fact about the outcome in this case is the number ofgenerations that will pass before the system reaches the globally stable equilibrium consisting ofjust the ESNIS. For systems whose dynamics are not given by Lotka-Volterra equations, the existence ofa unique, globally stable ESNIS coalition has not been proved. Moreover, simulations of a non Lotka-Volterra system designed to determine the applicability ofthe proof were inconclusive, due to the ESS coalition not having unique population sizes. Whether or not the proof presented in this work can be extended to non Lotka-Volterra systems remains to be determined.Show more