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    A review of the engineering properties of concrete with paper mill waste ash — towards sustainable rigid pavement construction.
    (Silicon) Pillay, Deveshan L.; Oladimeji B., Olalusi; Mostafa, Mohamed M.H.
    The drastic surge in urbanisation and construction-related activities is increasing the demand for cement and aggregates, especially for concrete production. Concrete is utilised for a wide variety of structural applications, including rigid pavements construction, due to its superior strength and durability performance. However, the production of cement and concrete increases carbon footprint; and the source of natural aggregates depletes. Hence, there is an increased demand for pavement designs that incorporate sustainable materials and maintain a consistent level of service. In rigid pavements construction, this can be achieved with the integration of alternate binder systems, such as paper mill ash (PMA). This paper presents a systematic review of the engineering properties of PMA as a partial cement replacement material for sustainable concrete production. The review is focused on the influence of PMA on the engineering properties of concrete. The main advantages and limitation of using PMA were highlighted and discussed. Grey areas for possible research exploit were also identified. Based on the superior tensile (2.68 – 3.98 MPa) and flexural (4.04 – 5.01 MPa) strength results documented in the various works of literature reviewed, it can be concluded that PMA is a feasible alternative binder material for rigid pavement applications. This, coupled with its negligible CO2e emission value, indicate that PMA is beneficial to the sustainability and serviceability states of rigid pavements. The viewpoint of this review will be useful for researchers for their future studies and guide stakeholders in the construction industry to have more understanding of PMA concrete.