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Masters Degrees (Social Science Education)

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    School management teams’ perspective of trans: a case study.
    (2022) Naicker, Asogan Subramony.; Bhana, Deevia.
    Abstract available in PDF.
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    Does food in History matter? exploring 4th year History education students’ views on the space for food in the South African History curriculum.
    (2022) Mhlanga, Nomkhosi Mightgirl.; Maposa, Marshall Tamuka.
    The purpose of this study is to understand the historical significance of food as a topic in school history, according to History Education students. The history curriculum is a contested space for content that is relevant to learners, and this has manifested itself recently in South Africa, with students calling for the revision of the curriculum as part of the quest for decolonisation of education. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on which content deserves to be included in the history curriculum. Acknowledging the role that food has played in the unfolding of history, this study was guided by historical significance as a conceptual framework for understanding History Education students’ views on the space for food as a topic in the South African history curriculum. The study is qualitative in nature and is situated in the interpretivist paradigm. Open-ended interviews were held with a sample of eight 4th year History Education students. The findings from the data revealed that the participants advocate for the overt inclusion of food history in the South African History curriculum, either as part of the metanarrative or as a separate topic. They justify the historical significance of food for its influence on economy, politics, migration, social cohesion, identity, and as a nutrient. The conclusion is that the History Education students use their understanding of historical significance to argue that food is central to the narrative of humanity and should therefore overtly feature as a first-order concept in the school history curriculum.
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    An exploration of selected South African history teachers’ content knowledge of African history.
    (2021) Zulu, Emmanuel Bongumusa.; Maposa, Marshall Tamuka.
    The dissertation presents an exploration of selected South African history teachers’ content knowledge of African history. Available literature says that teachers should have some benchmarks in order for them to be considered historically literate so that their learners benefit from them. The literature also reveals that, although it is impossible to measure how much content knowledge a history teacher should have, there is a certain level of content knowledge that is expected of them. The conceptual framework for this study that I use is called historical literacy as content knowledge. It consists of different four aspects: knowledge of historical dates, knowledge of historical figures, knowledge of historical places, and knowledge of historical events. This study was conducted in Mtubatuba, in the northern part of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Ten (10) history teachers were conveniently sampled, and data was generated through a focus-group discussion and individual interviews (which included evaluative questions). The selected history teachers were asked questions which revealed their content knowledge of African history, and their views on their respective content knowledge. The findings are thematically presented in response to the two key research questions. The data revealed that the participants were able to display differing levels of content knowledge such as average level, below average level, above average level, and a level of excellence. While some were able to respond to the evaluative questions, some could barely respond, demonstrating below average content knowledge. The participants demonstrated higher levels of content knowledge of South African history, but performed poorly when responding to questions about other African countries. The participants who struggled to answer the evaluative questions believed that some questions were not fair to them, as they had not taught on the topics recently, and had even forgotten content. The participants who did well said that they were satisfied with their performance since the questions they were asked required their basic knowledge as answers. These participants said that they were asked questions that required them to give answers based on the information they had already known even before they started school. The participants were proud of answering questions correctly; there was also a feeling that questions that were asked empowered them in terms of content knowledge. The participants acknowledged that it was important to own a certain level of content knowledge so that a history teacher could be regarded as historically literate.
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    Parents’ views on transgender identities and the implications for learners.
    (2021) Tshibe, Thembisa Princess.; Bhana, Deevia.
    The systematic mistreatment of transgendered people within our society at large, and particularly in rural South Africa, is still endemic. Parents, however, can play a very crucial role in challenging and changing the assumptions their children have about transgendered people. Thus, this study addresses the ways in which parents understand trans identities and he implications thereof for children. The research design for this study adopted the use of semi structured individual interviews using photo-elicitation methods with parents residing at Umgababa, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who currently have children in primary school. Two research issues underpinned the study. Firstly, the study sought to understand parents’ constructions of transgendered identities. Secondly, the research attempted to comprehend the ways that tradition and culture shape parents’ attitudes towards transgendered people. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data gathered from the participants. The research findings of the study revealed limited understandings of transgender identities amongst the parents interviewed. They also showed that rural parents’ reactions towards transgendered individuals are deeply grounded in heterosexual morals that are re-enforced by culture, tradition, and religious affiliations. This study also concluded that the violence aimed at LGBTQI+ identities in patriarchal communities regularly results in gender non-conforming individuals feeling powerless and fearing for their lives. Consequently, the results of the study indicated that parents and school staff members need to work more closely together if they are to gain collective insight relating to transgender issues. The dissertation concludes by claiming that parents are the primary influence on their children’s comprehension and behaviour in regard to transgender issues and, therefore, transgender matters need to be thoroughly addressed at the family level. A last conclusion drawn is the fact that parents should become primary ‘change-agents’ in order to help curb the spread of homophobic and transphobic stereotypes within rural communities (as a means of eradicating the gender-binary attitude that continually promotes toxic masculinity within patriarchal spaces).
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    Teachers’ perceptions of sex, gender and sexuality diversities: evidence from a Durban primary school.
    (2022) Sewnath, Navisha.; Singh, Shakila.
    Issues of gender and sexuality permeate the entire schooling experience and impact the daily activities of learners. As such, it is critical that educators have a grounded understanding of these topics to ensure that all learners feel included and can obtain the requisite information on gender and sexuality. International studies have concluded that educators have a wholesale deficit of knowledge on sexuality and gender, while prior research from South Africa has mostly focused on the understanding that Life Orientation educators have of sexuality and gender. Thus, this study attempts to contribute to the literature on sex, gender and sexual diversities and schooling by investigating the perceptions that a selected group of intermediate phase teachers in a primary school have of sex, gender and diverse sexualities. This qualitative study aims to investigate teachers’ understanding of, and engagements with, sex, gender and diverse sexualities in the primary school. The sample comprised 12 purposefully selected intermediate phase educators at a selected primary school in Durban. This included teachers who specialised in Life Orientation and teachers who did not. The study was conducted within the interpretivist paradigm and individual semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from the educators. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The social construction of gender, gender-relations theory and queer theory were utilised to understand the data. The key findings from the study revealed that such educators have varying understandings of sex, gender and sexuality diversity, with the majority having a limited understanding of these concepts and a culture of heteronormativity prevailing in the school at large. Furthermore, the educators did not regularly engage with sex, gender or sexuality diversity in their classrooms and many understood it as being the domain of the Life Orientation specialists. They cited lack of preparation and general discomfort with the topics of sex, gender or sexuality diversity as the main reasons. This study argues that all educators, regardless of the subjects that they teach, should have the requisite knowledge of gender and sexuality.
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    The impact of integration processes and xenophobia on postgraduate students in a South African higher education institution.
    (2022) Mncwabe, Bongumusa.; Jarvis, Janet.
    Xenophobia is a world-wide phenomenon directed at those who are migrants in a country that is not their own. The term migrants, refers to people who have left their country of origin to seek a better lifestyle, with better employment prospects, in another country. Illegal migrants are not in possession of a work or study visa. Migrants who are legally allowed to enter a country that is not their own, are in possession of the necessary documentation. Many enter the host country for a short period of time, while others engage in the process of immigration. Whatever the migrant status may be, typically, migrants are othered and/or exploited in the labour market. Negative attitudes and treatment directed at migrants has seen many migrants feeling destitute. South Africa is a favoured destination for migrants from other countries in Africa. Incidences of xenophobia have been rife and often violent in nature. South African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have not been spared. This study explores the impact of integration processes and xenophobia on postgraduate students n a particular South African HEI. In particular, this study looks at how integration processes promoted in this HEI could possibly contribute to xenophobic attitudes. Xenophobia manifests in attitudes, prejudices, and behaviours that exclude individuals based on the perception that they are outsiders (United Nations, 2006). This study explores interactions between African International Students (AIS) and local students. Xenophobic tendencies are displayed when AIS must integrate into HEIs. This study explores the lived experiences of postgraduate AIS in a HEI on the east coast of South Africa. Working within an interpretive paradigm, the responses of the purposively selected participants in semi-structured interviews, are analysed using the theoretical lens of Intergroup Perception Theory (Kawakami et al., 2017) and Intergroup Contact Theory (Allport, 1954). Instead of being treated with acceptance and hospitality, AIS face abuse, victimization, and hostility from local students. The Intergroup Perception Theory advocates that people who share similarities have pre-conceived ideas about people who are different from them. These pre-conceived ideas, frequently based on misconceptions can create conflict. In particular, AIS are othered by local students which impedes integration in the HEI. The findings show that these students are subjected to xenophobic attitudes. The integration processes offered by the HEI do not assist in dealing with these attitudes and perceptions. AIS are victimised by local students they are called derogatory names and they are discriminated against. There is no on-going monitoring taking place on the part of the HEI to ensure that the AIS are adequately supported. Keywords: African International Students, Higher Education Institutions, integration, migrants, xenophobia.
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    Being queer in South African township secondary schools: experiences of queerphobic violence and creating opportunities for change.
    (2022) Mkhize, Nkonzo Emmanual.; Moletsane, Relebohile.
    Despite the fact that the rights of South African queer persons are enshrined in the Constitution, queer youth continue to experience marginalization and queerphobic violence in communities and schools. The aim of this study was to investigate how, despite the protective constitutional context, queer African youth experience, respond to and resist queerphobic violence in and around their township secondary schools. The main research question addressed by the study was How do queer African youth experience, respond to and resist negative experiences in township secondary schools? The study is located within the constructivist paradigm to understand the world in which the participants live and learn, and the critical paradigm to critically examine and challenge the unequal social norms that informs their marginalization and violence they experience. Linked to these paradigms, the study adopted a qualitative methodology, and in particular, participatory visual methodology (PVM) as an approach to addressing the research question. Working with 10 queer African youth, the study generated data through participatory visual methods, drawing and cellphilms-making, during a series of workshops. In addition, using the visual artefacts (drawings) they generated, I held one-on-one interviews with each participant. The emerging data was analysed using thematic analysis and John Fiske’s three layers of analysis of visual texts. These layers include the primary texts (drawings and cellphilms), the secondary text (what the participant had to say about what they have made), and the audience text which involves what the audience (including other participants in the workshops and others outside the workshop) says about the primary text. To address the main research question, the study posed three critical questions. In response to the first critical question, What does it mean to be a queer African youth in a township secondary school?, the findings suggest that the schools are configured around unequal gender and heteropatriarchal norms. In these spaces, for these participants, queerphobic violence, including name-calling, bullying, physical and sexual assaults, was part of every aspect of schooling, with little support from teachers, who were often perpetrators. In response to the second critical research question, How do they respond and resist their negative experiences from peers and teachers?, the findings suggest that despite the heterosexist school contexts, the participants drew on their agency to develop friendships, love, and a sense of belonging. The participants’ resistance and agency involved avoiding certain spaces (such as toilets), but also knowingly going into queerphobic areas to disrupt and subvert the unequal gender norms that informed interactions in and around the school. In response to the third research question, What changes do queer African youth want to see in their township secondary school?, the study found that, informed by their experiences of queerphobic violence, the changes the participants wanted to see in the schools included changing school policy, improving teacher preparation for teachers to address queerphobic violence and queer issues, and changing the curriculum to include queer content and affirm queer youth in schools. These findings have implications for interventions aimed at addressing the safety of queer learners in these schools and communities. Based on these findings, interventions might include changes to school policy (particularly the Code of Conduct), working with communities and parents to identify and develop strategies aimed at making schools safe, improving school and classroom practice, and teacher education and professional development to ensure that curricula for training include the needs and issues of queer learners.
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    Teachers’ constructions of transgender identities in rural secondary schools.
    (2021) Mbonambi, Gobizazi Lucky.; Bhana, Deevia.
    This study seeks to examine South African teachers’ understanding of transgenderism. Although there is ample evidence in South African society of inequality and discrimination based on sexual orientation, teachers’ understandings of transgender identities are not well documented, especially within educational settings. The study utilised a qualitative research design that involved individual interviews with twenty-four teachers across three schools in a working class African rural context. Three research questions underpinned the study. Firstly, the study sought to examine rural secondary school teachers’ constructions of transgender identities and, secondly, the study examined the influence of socio-cultural norms on these constructions and, lastly, the accommodation or rejection of transgender identities in the classroom. Data analysis comprised of thematic analysis to present the research findings. The research findings indicated that teachers had a limited understanding of transgender identity and, further, that teachers’ constructions of transgender identities closely relate to gendered ideologies. The study revealed that teachers’ lack of understanding of transgender identity produces discrimination against gender non-conforming learners, including tolerating homophobia. The research identified heteronormativity, compulsory heterosexuality and related socio-cultural norms as major components which shape how teachers construct transgender identities in their respective schools. Conversely, teachers who identified as gay demonstrated an understanding of gender fluidity by supporting and advocating for the rights of gender non-conforming learners in the school context. The research also found that teachers are not willing to discuss or teach topics involving gender and sexuality as they regard these topics as sensitive. Rather, teachers opt to focus solely on prescribed subject content, indicating that the teaching of gender diversity should fall to Life Orientation teachers. The study also found unequal representation of genders in the Life Orientation curriculum, which results in the erasure of certain genders whilst normalising others. The research concludes by proposing that transgenderism should be addressed in South African schools through ensuring that both teachers and learners obtain a greater understanding of transgender identity. Further, that the prevalence of socio-cultural norms focusing on compulsory heterosexuality, heteronormativity, and gender binarism should be disrupted within school settings. The hidden curriculum can play an important role for all teachers to ensure an inclusive learning environment that does not marginalise gender nonconforming learners.
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    Towards a decolonised philosophy of African history: theoretical reflections of the history academics in South Africa.
    (2022) Tabhu, Mlamuli.; Maposa, Marshall Tamuka.
    This study sought to investigate the coloniality and decolonised philosophy of African history through the theoretical reflections of the designated history academics in South Africa. The research was informed by the quest to revisit the philosophical question extended on the Africanness of African history, encapsulating the epistemic predicaments confronting history academics as they propound African history. The literature search covered in the study leaned more on the African archive since the study is designed from an African-centred worldview, and which in the main incorporated the succeeding themes with an attempt to unearth the epistemological, ontological, and metaphysical nature of philosophy of African history: the nature of history, modernist theory, and African history, neo-liberalism and African history, the conceptual meaning of African history, the philosophy of African history, academia in South Africa, the role of academics in African philosophy, decolonisation in Africa. African philosophy and decolonial theory as a conceivable decolonised philosophy of African history was closely considered in an attempt not only to frame the study from a particular dimension but also to make sense of the theoretical contributions made by the designated history academics in South Africa. The main endeavors of this research were to explore how history academics in South African institutions theorise the coloniality of the philosophy of African history and to understand how they also theorise a decolonised philosophy of African history. The study followed a qualitative research approach and a conceptual research design. This dissertation also closely considered an Afrocentric paradigm with an attempt of seeing, writing, and interpreting the philosophy of African history from an African centred worldview that views reality to be a construction of a community of learning. The five designated history academics in four different universities in South Africa were considered through convenience sampling. To generate the data from the designated participants the study employed semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that the academics viewed the coloniality of the philosophy of African history through a modernist conception of the philosophy of African history, emphasis on African crisis, Africa as ahistorical. They also depicted that concerning a decolonised philosophy of African history can be theorised through an Africanist conception of the philosophy of African history, emphasis on African agency, and African self-consciousness. It is within the consideration of the above research findings that the study aimed at contributing to the looming and continued debates in Africa and precisely South Africa concerning the nature of the philosophy of African history in this age of decolonisation discourses with specific reference to History Education.
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    The representation of poverty and poverty alleviation in the prescribed economics textbooks at a higher education institution: a critical discourse analysis.
    (2021) Olunuga, Timilehin Timothy.; Ramdhani, Jugathambal.
    This study has been motivated by the necessity for a more complete understanding of how textbook authors project content knowledge, conveys facts and inspire thoughts and attitudes. The Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) reaffirms the textbook as a critical pedagogical tool in the classroom and a leading resource tool for knowledge transmission. Specifically, the aim of this study is to examine how the representations of poverty and poverty alleviation within prescribed Economics textbooks at a higher education institution are represented. The objective was to uncover the ideological meanings hiding beneath the written words and sentences in the prescribed textbooks that reference poverty and poverty. The study is positioned in a critical paradigm using a qualitative methodology and the principles of critical discourse analysis established by Huckin (1997) as an analytical framework. A purposive sampling approach was used to select two prescribed Economics textbooks for this study. The findings are arranged according to themes that emerged in the course of the study. The themes that emerged are: Rural poverty, Feminization of poverty, Poverty and Race, Poverty and Income Inequality, Disparities within countries and across countries, and Poverty as a valid idea. The findings in this chapter affirm that there are inferred power in the representations and portrayals of poverty and poverty alleviation in Economics textbooks. This research supports the argument that negative connotations or stereotypes are still being used to describe the poor, especially in discourse. The main concern is how poverty and poverty alleviation related knowledge is presented to learners in the classroom. Recommendations are made to encourage future researchers to take cognisance of the words and powers that is being presented in the textbooks and interview authors, teachers, and learners in classrooms to determine their viewpoints on what is written and learned.
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    Teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards same-sex desiring learners in one urban single-sex high school in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2021) Ngcobo, Sinenhlanhla.; Anderson, Bronwynne Mardia.
    Same-sex desiring learners face unique and complex challenges within the school environment where negative perceptions, heteronormativity and homophobia makes it difficult for them to have a normal schooling experience. The study explored high school teachers` understandings, perceptions and attitudes towards same-sex desiring learners in an urban single-sex school. The researcher used a qualitative approach located within the interpretivist paradigm to collect data. The qualitative approach was also used in order to understand how the teachers navigate their teaching and the strategies that they use to include same-sex desiring learners. The social constructionist theory enabled the researcher to explore the variegated attitudes and perceptions that teachers have and how their social backgrounds namely their culture, race, class, religion and age have contributed to their perceptions. The data was collected using photo-elicitation and semi-structured individual interviews which enabled the participants to express their perceptions and attitudes regarding same-sex desiring learners. The interviews were conducted with 17 participants who teach at a selected urban single-sex high school in KwaZulu-Natal. Results of the study revealed that many of the teachers lacked awareness and understanding of the human rights of same-sex desiring learners that are enshrined in the South African constitution and Bill of Rights. The study also revealed how cultural and religious beliefs contribute largely to the lack of tolerance and acceptance of same-sex desiring learners. Societal constructions of femininity and masculinity contributes to the ways in which these teachers perceive same-sex desiring learners and their attitudes towards the learners. Although the teachers may not openly be homophobic to the learners the study revealed that many of these teachers are covertly homophobic which influences how they navigate their teaching, and how they include and exclude learners inside and outside the classroom. Recommendations in the study included educating teachers, more particularly at undergraduate level about same-sex desiring learners so that they are informed and will challenge the socially constructed perceptions and attitudes they may have before entering into a schooling environment. Developing an inclusive curriculum which speaks to gender and sexual diversity and developing policies that protect same-sex desiring learners was also recommended.
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    Navigating the complexities of gay and lesbian sexual identities among rural African university students: a narrative inquiry.
    (2021) Makhowane, Nonjabulo Nonkuleko.; D'amant, Antoinette.
    The study focuses on the narratives of African gay and lesbian university students from the rural areas in relation to how they navigate their sexual identities in an effort to understand their experiences and realities of ‘otherness’ and oppression. The study uses a combination of two theoretical frameworks: Cass’s Model of Homosexual Identity Formation (1976) and Hardiman and Jacksons’ Social Identity Development Model (1997). This combination of theories offers a comprehensive and useful lens to better identify the oppressive experiences and realities of gays and lesbians. To understand human lived experiences, the study utilises a qualitative research design. The selection of participants was done through snowballing and purposive sampling to generate rich personal narratives as the elected strategy of inquiry. Through these sampling methods, five participants were found. Narratives were gathered through digital platforms, such as phone calls and WhatApp. While research using a small sample of five participants from a one university and different rural areas cannot claim to be indicative of the realities of all South African communities, to a large extent these narratives do reflect experiences of ‘otherness’ and oppression common to the majority of African university gay and lesbian people. The study found that students navigate their sexual identity to suit the environment they are in. These students have expressed that their homes are hostile and not accommodative towards a gay or lesbian identity therefore they hide or mask their identity. Furthermore, it has been found that universities are allowing and welcoming towards their sexual diversity.
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    Cyberbullying: teenage girls’ online experiences of, and challenges to sexual harassment.
    (2021) Lakhan, Omeshree.; Bhana, Deevia
    The emergence of the internet has allowed for new modes of self-expression, whilst also providing new platforms for abusive social dynamics. There is a dearth of support in the response of schools, parents, and advisors to the experience of sexual harassment of young girls online. Cyber security practices, specifically the monitoring and support of online behaviour in academic policy can address the problem of sexual harassment and cyberbullying. Due to the rapidly changing nature of online landscapes, research connecting sexual harassment and cyber spaces remains minimal. Given the everchanging development of online spaces and dynamics, both governments and academic researchers have lagged in providing either sufficient study or governmental policy in the interest of protecting young people from online abuse. This study examines teenage girls’ online experiences of cyberbullying and sexual harassment and aims to understand how girls confront and challenge these issues. The dissertation adopts a multi-theoretical approach focusing on gender relational theory, femininities, theory of performativity, and feminist new materialism. Data was collected and collated through qualitative research methods in the purposive sampling of South African girls aged 13-18 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. This research was executed in Victoria High School through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, vignettes, and photo elicitations. While the results highlighted the pervasive experience of sexual harassment online, unexpectedly, the participants revealed their complicity in this harassment by actively engaging in harmful online practices. In response, this dissertation recommends that key stakeholders listen to the voices of young girls and work in synergy to offer support from abusive online behaviours. As attitudes about sex remain taboo in homes and schools, it is the role of these advisors to make comfortable spaces for discourse about sexual harassment. Furthermore, policy makers need to sanction greater penalties to prevent the recurrence of cybercrimes and protect young girls in these spaces.
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    Understanding teachers’ construction of transgender identity: perspectives from primary school teachers in Amanzimtoti within KwaZulu- Natal.
    (2021) Al Sayed, Fatima; Bhana, Deevia
    A dearth of research of primary school teachers’ knowledge of transgender people in South African education led to this research. The experiences of transgender people in South African society are not well documented although evidence of inequalities based on sexual orientation exist. The research design involved individual interviews (using a photo elicitation method) with teachers in a working-class suburban context. Two research questions underpinned the study. Firstly, the study sought to examine the meanings that primary school teachers make of transgender identities and secondly, the processes through which such perceptions and understandings were made. Data analysis was influenced by thematic analysis which structured the research findings. The findings from the data analysis displayed the intersection of primary school teachers’ construction of gender identities with that of the gender binary, compulsory heteronormativity, age, and power dynamics in relation to sex, sexuality, culture, and religion. The research findings indicated limited knowledge of the term transgender as well as the meaning that individuals who identify as such attach to it. Further, teachers viewed sex and gender as one and the same, attributing this notion to male-female differences, thus further perpetuating the outdated theory of essentialism and naturalism. Coupled with the failure of the national sex and sexuality curriculum (Life Orientation and Life Skills) and teachers’ reluctance to effectively teach learners about sex, gender, and sexuality education, tended to create a schooling culture that was intolerant and harmful to learners who were gender non-conforming. The dissertation concludes with recommendations aimed at addressing transgender in South African schools through processes and interventions that ensure that teachers and learners, obtain greater understanding and acceptance of transgender learners and individuals. This can promote an inclusive and more all-encompassing learning environment and school culture that is accepting, tolerant, and non-discriminatory towards learners based on their gender and sexuality.
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    An Interpretation of disability in Grade 10 business studies textbooks in South Africa.
    (2020) Cassim, Taskeen.; Ramdhani, Jugathambal.
    In South Africa, the textbook is considered a crucial pedagogical tool used in the classroom, particularly in the subject of Business Studies. Textbooks are also a means of passing on societal values to learners. From this perspective, there is a need to understand the concept of disability as it is presented in textbooks, as well as the values passed down to learners regarding people with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to interpret the portrayal of disability in Grade 10 Business Studies textbooks within the South African context. This qualitative study is situated in the interpretive paradigm and draws on critical theory as the theoretical framework of the study. The research employs Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as the analytical tool for this study to probe the texts for any hidden ideologies in relation to disability that may have been present. A purposive sample of eight Grade 10 Business Studies was selected to explore the phenomenon of disability as it is presented in the textbooks. The findings of the study were discussed according to the following themes that emerged from the texts: workplace discrimination among previously disadvantaged groups, such as people of colour, women and people with disabilities, where people with disabilities are professionally discriminated against; exclusion of people with disabilities from the world of work due to negative stereotypes of being incapable and incompetent, as well as due to the added cost of making appropriate accommodations for them at work; legislation enacted to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities into society and the workplace, as well as legislation directed at the eradication of discrimination against people with disabilities, is unsuccessful due to a lack of proper implementation. Textbooks also contained subliminal messaging, with the implementers of legislation exerting power and control over the disabled; and implications for inclusivity in businesses revealed underlying authoritative tones on the part of the state when addressing businesses with regards to practicing inclusivity. In conclusion, the textbooks under study were found to reinforce negative stereotypic notions of people with disabilities as victims of discrimination facing exclusion from society, specifically in the context of the workplace. From the findings, a recommendation that cognisance be paid to the negative societal values contained in these textbooks.
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    Teachers’ understandings and uses of the case-based method to teach Tourism in Grades 10-12.
    (2021) Dlamini, Mlungisi.; Dube-Xaba, Zanele Heavy-Girl Winnie.
    The current national curriculum for secondary schools in South Africa envisages learners who can think critically and will be able to solve problems in the real world of work. To achieve this goal, the case-based methodology is often used as a teaching strategy because it provides a fertile ground to apply theoretical concepts to real-world situations while enhancing learner participation and developing critical skills. Given the practical nature of Tourism as a subject in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase in schooling in South Africa, the study examined teachers’ understandings and use of the case-based method in teaching Tourism in Grades 10-12. A qualitative case study methodology and interpretive paradigm were used. Three teachers from one school participated in this study and were purposely selected. Data were generated using semi-structured face-to-face interviews, lesson observations, and teachers’ reflective writings. The findings indicated a paradox in teachers’ understandings of the case-based method of teaching Tourism. On the one hand, they understood the case-based method as a valuable teaching strategy while, on the other hand, they perceived this method as complex and difficult to apply. It was evident from the data that the teachers predominantly used the traditional way of classroom instruction (often referred to as the ‘chalk and talk’ method) as they did not engage in active learning strategies such as discussions of case studies, which are required in the case-based method in teaching and learning. This suggests that the teachers did not provide opportunities for the formation of a learning community in which the learners could explore tourism concepts while also engaging in the collaborative construction of knowledge using the case-based method. The implication is that teachers’ use of case-based methodologies as a teaching and learning strategy in Tourism classrooms is dependent on their understanding of the case-based methodology. Therefore, this study concludes that these Tourism teachers did not possess adequate skills in transmitting the required knowledge of Tourism as the case-based method was not appropriately applied.
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    Learners’ experiences of TB and HIV integrated messages at secondary schools in the Umlazi district.
    (2021) Luthuli, Nothando Grace.; Jarvis, Janet.
    Using three purposively selected secondary schools in the Umlazi district as a case study, the study reported in this dissertation sought to explore learners’ experiences of TB and HIV integrated messages in extracurricular activities. The rationale of the instrumental case study was that knowing, appreciating and understanding learners' preferences and experiences should inform future TB and HIV school- based extracurricular design, furthermore, adding to the body of knowledge on TB and HIV school- based extracurricular activities. Located in the interpretative paradigm, the study used a qualitative research design to address the research questions. The methods of data collection included focus group interviews and participant observations with a purposively selected sample of 12 learners. Responses were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic data analysis as outlined by Cresswell (2009). The study used three conceptual frameworks: Health Belief Model (Becker 1974), Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura 1989) and Communication for Social Change (Kincaid & Figueroa 2009) as lenses to gain an understanding of the experiences of learners. Results were interpreted by means of literature control. Four themes emerged. The results indicated that there are no TB and HIV integrated messages at the school- based extracurricular activities in the Umlazi district secondary schools. Both TB and HIV had autonomous messages. Learners’ experiences of TB and HIV messages were diverse; majority of the learners had positive experiences. They experienced that they were changed positively by knowledge on TB and HIV. In this respect, they were more open and motivated to communicate their views and to behave responsibly. Of the negative experiences, learners felt that they were flooded with TB and HIV information. Other learners emulated a range of misconceptions around TB and HIV. Learners indicated that they would appreciate the presenters being young as they are more comfortable conversing with younger people. The study recommends further research on coining TB and HIV integrated messages for school- based extracurricular activities.
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    Exploring teachers’ experiences of teaching Accounting in rural schools: a case of novice teachers in Zululand district.
    (2021) Ncama, Solumuzi Pressure.; Ngwenya, Jabulisile Cynthia.
    The public education sector in South Africa has experienced drastic changes. This includes curriculum changes and a shortage of both physical and human resources in most parts of our country. The implementation of the curriculum has been affected by various issues in both the urban and rural teaching context. Therefore, this study focuses on newly appointed Accounting teachers’ experiences of teaching the Accounting curriculum in the rural context. The main purpose of this study was to explore Accounting novice teachers’ experiences of teaching the Accounting curriculum in three rural secondary schools in the Zululand district. This study employed the interpretive paradigm and a qualitative approach to obtain in-depth information about novice teachers’ experiences. Purposive sampling was adopted in five Accounting novice teachers in Nongoma circuit currently teaching the Accounting Further Education and Training (FET) phase, who had less than five years of teaching experience. Semi-structured and focus group interviews were conducted with the teachers in their schools and all sessions were audio-taped. Thematical analysis was used to analyse the generated data, and themes were developed. The findings revealed that Accounting novice teachers experienced various challenges linked to the implementation of the Accounting curriculum and the development of Accounting pre-service teachers. On one hand, the teachers reported problems such as inadequate teaching and learning resources, a lack of parental support, stereotypical views of Accounting, contextual limitations on assessment and teaching, learners’ lack of adequate foundational knowledge, and language barriers in the Accounting classroom. These problems were linked to challenges deterring implementation of the curriculum as planned. Inadequate preparation of Accounting pre-service teachers, a lack of proper induction, lack of support and mentoring, and professional isolation were issues revealed by novice teachers. This study therefore made some recommendations based on the findings. Novice teachers as innovative commerce teachers must work together with their schools to approach local businesses and relevant stakeholders for any possible support in respect of inadequate teaching and learning resources. Due to a shortage of human resources, the financial literacy in grades 8 and 9 in the Economics and Management 7 Sciences (EMS) subject must be taught by Accounting specialists to ensure that the Accounting part is well implemented. The Department of Education (DoE) must develop continuous programmes directed to novice teachers’ development in the profession to increase the retention rate of teachers in a rural context. Also, principals in rural schools must be well trained and monitored whether they implement teacher developmental programmes in their schools.
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    Geography undergraduate students’ experiences of using modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment in higher education.
    (2021) Ndwalane, Thembelihle.; Zondi, Thabile.; Zondi, Thabile Aretha.
    Technology has been adopted by various higher education institutions globally and locally to support teaching and learning. Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle) is one of the Learning Management Systems (LMSs) that is a popular choice among higher education institutions. Moodle provides an online teaching and learning environment that supports students in their courses. Many students have, however, been experienced challenges in adopting the LMSs due to insufficient training and lack of computer skills in developing countries. This study, therefore, sought to explore Geography students’ experiences of using Moodle in Higher Education. The study drew from the Activity theory. The study adopted a qualitative research method and followed a case study methodology. The participants in this study were Geography Education students at the University KwaZulu Natal- Edgewood Campus. The study applied qualitative data generation methods in the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The findings from the study indicated that Moodle was convenient, time-saving and enhanced communication between lecturers and students. However, the students revealed that usage of Moodle was affected by lack of training. From the findings, this study recommends regular training for students on the use of Moodle and electricity backup arrangements during load shedding.
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    Primary school teachers’ views on transgender identity.
    (2021) Sathyanand, Karen.; Bhana, Deevia.
    Teacher perspectives on transgender identity in the South African schooling system is not well documented although there is evidence of inequalities based on sexual orientation. LGBTIQ+ identities are often marginalised, discriminated against, and victims of violent crimes. Teachers can play a role in perpetuating such inequalities but they can also challenge the status quo. An insufficient amount of research on primary school teachers’ knowledge of transgender identities in South African education directed this study. The research design involved semi structured individual interviews and focus group discussions (using photo elicitation methods and vignettes) with primary school teachers from two schools in Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal. This study was guided by three research questions, namely: “How do primary school teachers view and understand transgender identity?” “What lived experiences of primary school teachers influence their views and understanding of transgender identities?” “How do primary school teachers’ views and understanding of transgender identities affect the teaching and learning environment?” Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The research findings revealed inadequate knowledge of transgender identity due to essentialist belief systems that impede the construction of gender knowledge. The findings point to a patriarchal society where unequal power relations within the community, culture, tradition and religion repudiate transgender and other non-conforming gender identities. Notwithstanding this, the teachers appeared intent to acquire more information on the phenomenon and extend their professional development. The dissertation concludes with recommendations to facilitate teachers’ perceptions, understanding, and implementation of gender and sexual diversity in primary schools. These include adopting a whole-school approach that looks at developing inclusive strategies of negotiation, compromise, endorsement of well-informed respect for difference, and promotion of conflict resolution practices to deal with difference of opinion. The implementation of these strategies can ultimately benefit primary school environments in maintaining an atmosphere that is trans-inclusive and repute gender discrimination altogether.