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Doctoral Degrees (Education Studies)

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    Early childhood education in Ghana: teachers’ understanding and enactment of inclusion.
    (2022) Mohammed, Awudu Salaam.; Hlalele, Joseph Dipane.
    This study explored teachers’ understanding and enactment of Inclusion in Early Childhood Education (IECE) in Ghana. Inclusion theorises that, every child of school-going age must have access to quality education regardless of their cultural and socioeconomic dissimilarity. The keystone of the policy is to stimulate inclusion and lessen exclusions in the educational system. By utilising an interpretive qualitative multi-case study approach involving semi-structured interviews, observation, and photo-elicitation instruments, data from six study teachers was collected. The inductive thematic analysis method was used to interpret the data. Findings from the study revealed IECE was understood as the accommodation and merging of learners with disability with their mainstream peers in the same learning environment to reduce stigmatisation, segregation, and exclusionary practices. Disability was a major factor influencing Ghana’s IECE practices, more than equity issues, ability, and stage of child’s enrolment. Despite the progressive principles underpinning IECE, the enactment of the programmes is encountering challenges due to various debilitating factors such as the lack of educational resources, funding, inappropriate training programmes, and conservative cultural views towards children with disabilities. The study recommended that for a high level of IECE practice, the policy should be supported by effective and ongoing training, Government support by providing the required resources, clear policy guidelines, and employing teachers with knowledge and understanding IECE. For an IECE school to succeed, a culture mind shift must begin at the top, with a coherent understanding, shared vision throughout the entire staff, commitment, and best practices in teaching and learning throughout the whole school community. Teachers, policymakers, and other role-players in education should view IECE in the context of learners’ rights to education rather than focusing on disability problems associated with exclusion and segregation. The exploration concludes that, even though the enactment of IECE is fraught with impediments, it is a reasonable practice that should be enacted to achieve national objectives since IECE exposes children to information and skills which is vital for economic growth and confidence building. By meaningfully adopting IECE and enacting it successfully, the nation’s current and future human resource development, will be enhanced. building. By meaningfully adopting the IECE policy and enacting it successfully, the nation’s current and future human resource development, will be enhanced.
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    Dynamics of implementing mainstream english curriculum at a school for the deaf in Eswatini.
    (2023) Khumalo , Sabelo Mlungisi.; Shoba, Makhosazana Edith.
    It is essential to explore the dynamics of implementing the mainstream English curriculum at a school for the deaf. This assists teachers to reflect and critique their practices and experiences with the aim of improving their classroom actions. It also helps to raise awareness of the natural identity of both teachers and learners at the school, with the hope of meeting individual needs and ultimately, the teaching and learning goals. This qualitative study employed the pragmatic paradigm and action research design. Seven teachers purposively sampled participated in the study six teachers of English and the school principal. The study was guided by three research questions: 1) What are the dynamics of implementing the mainstream English curriculum at the school for the deaf in Eswatini? (descriptive); 2) How do the dynamics of the mainstream English curriculum influence its implementation in the school for the deaf? (Operational); and 3) why are the dynamics of implementing the mainstream English curriculum at the school for the deaf the way they are? (philosophical). Five data-generation instruments were used namely: documents review, reflective activity, video observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The Natural Identity Framework guided this study leading to the generation of three categories: the top-down, bottom-up, and individual dynamics. Findings revealed that there is tension between the top-down (professional) and bottom-up (societal/school) dynamics, which affects curriculum implementation at the school. This begged for the recognition of individual dynamics which seek to understand the personal “who” questions. Such dynamics are neutral; and they harmonise the tension of the two giants by combining their strengths. The individual dynamics are realised after reflecting and critiquing current practices and experiences. Such help to meet individual needs and to improve practice. Consequently, the study recommends that teachers should always reflect and critique their practices in order to identify what works in their respective school contexts. As a contribution to the body of knowledge, this study proposes the innate dynamics implementation model which recognises the natural and inborn identity of both teachers and learners as the key driver of a successful curriculum implementation.
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    Integration of technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution: the context of primary schools in Pinetown District.
    (2022) Nene , Lindokuhle Gary.; Mpungose , Cedric Bheki.
    This research is a qualitative study that utilises a phenomenological research study, by means of 24 teachers at primary schools in South Africa, to fulfil its purpose. This study employs an interpretivist paradigm. This paradigm has been utilised because the study aims at exploring three missing levels of integration (constructive, unconstructive, and personal) during teaching and learning. The study intended to understand why teachers resist integration of technological resources. The methods of data generation employed are three online techniques owing to COVID-19: emailed reflective activity, Zoom focus-group discussion, and Skype one-to-one semi-structured interviews. These methods have been used for the purpose of sampling. Convenience sampling was utilised to select the most accessible participants. This study was framed by the curriculum origins concepts which originate from the curricular spider web (Van den Akker et al., 2009). This study utilises the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) as the theory that shapes the study. Data were analysed through guided analysis in which deductive and inductive methods were deployed. Lastly, ethical issues that are aligned with a qualitative study were considered. These include trustworthiness, dependability, confirmability, credibility, and transferability. This study employs this collection of research methods, the aim being to answer the following critical research questions: Research Questions: 1 .Which technological resources do teachers integrate into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution? 2. How do teachers integrate technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution? 3. What informs teachers in the fourth industrial revolution when integrating technological resources into the curriculum in the way they do? These research questions were underpinned by the following research objectives: Objectives of this Study: 1. To explore technological resources integrated into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution. 2. To explain the lessons to be learned when teachers integrate technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution. 3. To understand what informs the teachers’ integration of technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution. From the literature, three major concepts were generated by the research phenomena: constructive integration, unconstructive integration, and personal integration. These concepts were aligned with three categories of the curriculum, namely, the pragmatic, the horizontal, and the vertical. The literature and the findings of this study point to the actions of the majority of teachers, when integrating technological resources, being informed by constructive integration. Constructive integration occurs when teachers are compelled to follow a prescribed document such as a CAPS document and manuals. Thus, teachers are following a vertical curriculum. On Skype one-on-one semi-structured interviews teachers reflected on unconstructive integration. Such occurs when teachers’ actions are motivated by their social experience; this means that teachers share information. Such suggests that teachers are driven by the needs of horizontal curriculum. Online reflective activity also revealed that few teachers integrate technological resources, and their actions are informed by personal integration. This imbalance of integration leads to the poor integration of technological resources in which personal integration was singled out as the area for attention. Consequently, the main findings of this study indicate that teachers integrate technological resources into curriculum informed by three levels of integration: constructive, unconstructive and personal integration.
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    Psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic.
    (2022) Thilakdhari, Jayshree.; Jairam, Visvaranie.
    This research dissertation entitled ‘Psychosocial Experiences Of Foundation Phase Teachers In South Africa During The Covid-19 Pandemic’ presents an exploration and understanding of the lived psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. This phenomenological research study supports the value of experiences and was aimed at generating in-depth information to deeply understand the psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research study was conducted with a specific group of six foundation phase teachers from 3 provinces in South Africa, namely: KwaZulu-Natal; Gauteng and Western Cape. Purposive sampling was chosen alongside, availability and convenience of the research participants. This qualitative study is located within the interpretivist paradigm and uses phenomenology as the research methodology. This allowed the researcher to understand the psychosocial experiences of the foundation phase teachers in South Africa from the perspective of the research participants at a particular point in time: the Covid-19 pandemic. Multiple methods of generating data were used for this research study, which included: semi-structured interviews, collage inquiry and metaphor drawing. The data generated allowed the researcher to produce rich and thick information of the research participants. The Psychosocial Development Theory was used as a theoretical framework to offers lenses in exploring and understanding the psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. Collage Portraiture was used as an analysis tool to support and enliven the analysis, and Vignettes were presented through themes and subthemes. The research findings indicated that foundation phase teachers in South Africa have knowledge and understandings of the Covid-19 pandemic, experience a variety of challenges during the Covid-19 pandemic, and need intervention strategies to support them during the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis of this research study revealed that the research participants negotiate their psychosocial experiences during the Covid-19 pandemic which leads to psychosocial development. A Psychosocial Development Research Intervention Model has been created for foundation phase teachers in South Africa, so they may develop psychosocially, work effectively during the crisis, minimize challenges, increase support and become resilient.
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    Educators’ experiences of corporal punishment: a case study of selected secondary schools in Eswatini.
    (2021) Magagula, Lindiwe Ncane.; Mnisi, Thoko Esther.
    Prompted by the escalating number of criminal cases against educators for severe corporal punishment and injury inflicted on learners, this study aimed to understand why educators persist with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment in Eswatini schools persists despite its proscription following Eswatini’s ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Guided by the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) as a theoretical framework, working within an interpretive paradigm, this qualitative study employed open-ended questionnaires administered to purposively selected educators from different types of schools in the four regions of the country. This was followed by two focus group discussions (FGDs) to validate and acquire an in-depth understanding of the data that were generated via the questionnaires. The data generated was used to understand why educators persist with corporal punishment. The main objectives were: to explore the experiences of educators relating to the use of corporal punishment to discipline learners in schools, to understand why educators persist with corporal punishment in schools despite its proscription, and to determine how educators maintain discipline and ensure an environment conducive to teaching and learning using less drastic disciplinary techniques. Following a thematic analysis of the data, the findings revealed that educators justify their persistent use of corporal punishment at three levels, namely social, political, and pedagogic levels. The findings further revealed that the educators have created their own amalgam of culturally influenced blended discipline to continue inflicting corporal punishment on learners. The study recommends that educator training institutions should follow the Education for Effective Classroom Management (ETCM) Model in educator training and include a module that specifically deals with issues of discipline. The institutions should also emphasise lifelong learning in educator service workshops to enable educators to meet the evolving demands of their profession.
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    Geography teachers’ integration of technology in the teaching of mapwork calculations in a secondary school in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Cele, Nkanyezi Hills.; Paideya, Vinodhani.
    The performance of learners in geography mapwork calculations is a major concern for both teachers and Departmental officials in South African secondary schools. Many proposals have and are being made concerning the improvement of learner attainment in geography examinations. However, the problem does not lie in tests and examinations but begins with how mapwork calculations are taught in the classroom. With the change of perceptions regarding teaching and learning in the 21st Century, it becomes necessary to view various options to teaching approaches in the classroom. The proliferation of perceptions about the integration of technology in teaching and learning raises concern about the teachers’ praxis in schools and the extent to which they integrate technology in the classroom. This study explores the integration of technology in the teaching of geography mapwork calculations at a secondary school, juxtaposing the perceptions of teachers in the research site with the perceptions of teachers within schools in the wider district. A concurrent triangulation of data generation methods was employed in the study. Qualitative methods were used to solicit data from participants, namely, qualitative questionnaire, focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis. Two conceptual frameworks, namely TPACK and UTAUT were used to guide the parameters of exploration in the study. The Social Capital theory was used as an analytical framework to provide an interpretation of the findings after data were analysed. This theory was applicable as it allowed people to work together and to access benefits from social relationships. Although the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic compelled teachers to find alternative ways of continuing their teaching online, despite the adverse conditions that exacerbated their teaching pressures, many geography teachers failed to explore new methods of teaching, using technology. The findings revealed that many teachers were not able to efficiently integrate technology into the teaching of mapwork calculations because of several factors that impacted on the integration in various ways, and many alternative methods employed by geography teachers presented with limitations. School policies, lack of support from internal structures in schools and external structures in the district, and lack of professional development, were found to be limiting factors towards the effective integration of technology to match the demands of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Recommendations were made to ensure that all stakeholders, namely geography teachers in secondary schools, the support structures in schools and the DBE officials, worked cooperatively to improve the performance of geography teachers. Suggestions included the implementation of professional development programmes and the provision of resource infrastructures to assist teachers in their integration of technology in teaching mapwork calculations. However, this research had some methodological limitations pertaining to the sample that was used as a case study. Nonetheless, it provided insight into the way technology integration was carried out in schools and highlighted hindrances towards the efficient implementation of integration programmes. A significant improvement in technology integration was evident at the research site due to support from the school’s personnel and technology infrastructure and the effective management of resources within the school. Mentoring of a newly appointed teacher by an experienced teacher was an effective form of professional development on a small scale. In view of the prevailing conditions at schools regarding technology integration, it is advisable that all stakeholders that partner with the DBE take interest in making schools the centres of powerful knowledge. The contribution from these partnerships will prepare the youth for employment as they complete their schooling career, equipped with knowledge and experiences to meet the demands of the 21st Century. By empowering geography learners with relevant technological skills, on par with the needs of the world of industry, these learners are likely to contribute significantly to the development of science and technology incorporating the geographic expertise that is necessary for future success in the working environment. The use of the Technology-Enhanced Geography Mentoring Model presented in this thesis will most likely facilitate communication among communities of practice and create a strong bond among the various structures in the bureaucracy. Having identified factors that impact on the integration of technology in Geography through the TePaSig Model, all the structures involved should work towards addressing the factors that prohibit the efficient integration of technology in the teaching of geography mapwork calculations. In so doing, geography learners will develop a solid grounding in mathematical geography and achieve the desired results, as they will be able to work independently using technological devices.
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    Izindlela namasu okufundisa ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi bebanga lesishiyagalombili esiZulwini ulimi lwasekhaya ezikoleni ezimbili ezisesiyingini sasePinetown.
    (2021) Mlondo, Zanele Witnes.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    ISIFINGQO Inhloso yalolu cwaningo ukubheka izindlela namasu okusetshenziswa othisha ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala esiZulwini uLimi lwasekhaya (ulimi lokuqala) kubafundi bebanga lesishiyagalombili. Lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuba kuphenduleke le mibuzongqangi emithathu: (i) Yiziphi izindlela namasu asetshenziswa othisha ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi bebanga lesishiyagalombili esiZulwini ulimi lwasekhaya ezikoleni ezimbili ezisesiYiningi sasePinetown? (ii) Othisha bebanga lesishiyagalombili bazisebenzisa kanjani izindlela namasu ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala ekufundiseni isiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya ezikoleni ezimbili ezisesiYingini sasePinetown? (iii) Kungani othisha bebanga lesishiyagalombili befundisa ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala esiZulwini ngendlela abakwenza ngayo? Ucwaningo lwenziwa ezikoleni ezimbili zamabanga aphezulu ezisesiYiningi sasePinetown. Kulezi zikole isiZulu sifundwa njengoLimi lokuQala (uLimi lwaseKhaya) kanti sifundwa abafundi abakhuluma isiZulu njengolimi lwasekhaya kanye nalabo abakhuluma ezinye izilimi zamaNguni njengesiXhosa neSiswati bese kuba khona nabakhuluma iSuthu. Kanti futhi lezi zikole zisendaweni enabantu abaxube zona lezi zilimi. Bahlanu othisha ababengabahlanganyeli kulolu cwaningo abafundisa isiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya ebangeni lesishiyagalombili. Lolu cwaningo luyikhwalithethivu ngaphansi kwepharadaymu i-constructivism. Luwucwaningo oluyi-case study. Ulwazi luqoqwe ngokusebenzisa izingxoxo ezisakuhleleka. Kusetshenziswe injulalwazi i-socio-constructivist kaVygotsky (1978) kanye nohlaka lwemicabango ekuhlaziyeni ulwazi olutholakele. Zintathu izindimba ezigqamayo olwazini olutholakele. Indikimba yokuqala iphathelene nokungaqondi kothisha mayelana nezindlela namasu ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi ababafundisa isifundo sesiZulu ebangeni lesishiyagalombili. Ngaphansi kwale ndikimba kunezindikimbana eziveza ukungaqeqesheki ngokwenele kothisha ekusebenziseni izindlela namasu ekufundiseni, isipiliyoni ekufundiseni isiZulu kanye nokushoda kwesisekelo esihle emakhonweni okufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala. Indikimba yesibili imayelana nokungazithuthukisi kothisha ekufundisweni kwala makhono womabili kubafundi abafunda isiZulu kuleli banga. Eyesithathu iveza ukuthi ukwentulela kolwazi lwezinjulalwazi kothisha kunomthelela ekutheni othisha abakuqondi ukusetshenziswa kwezindlela namasu okwahlukahlukene ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala. Ucwaningo lusonga ngokuphawula ukuthi ubuphansi bamazinga ekufundeni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi abafunda isiZulu esiyisifundo kwenziwa ukuthi, othisha abaqeqeshekile ngokwenele ekuqondeni izindlela namasu ekufundisweni kwala makhono. Ngaleyo ndlela kudingeka ukuba othisha bahlonyiswe ngolwazi olunzulu lwezinjulalwazi ukuze baziqonde izindlela ezahlukene zokuthuthukisa la makhono womabili kubafundi.
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    Ukunyamanisa izinganekwane ekuthuthukiseni ukukwazi ukufunda nokubhala emabangeni kusukela kwelokwamukela kuya kwelesithathu:ucwaningo lokufunda ezikoleni ezikhethiwe ezisesiyingini sasephayindane, KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu-Afrika.
    (2021) Cele, Rejoice Gugu Lindiwe.; Buthelezi, Makhosazana Thabisile.
    IQOQA Imfundo yaseNingizimu–Afrika ibalwa njengekhombisa ukuba namazinga aphansi ekungakwazini ukufunda nokubhala uma iqhathaniswa namanye amazwe asemhlabeni emabangeni ayisisekelo. Lolu cwaningo lwethula ulwazi engilutholile maqondana nokunyamanisa izinganekwane ekuthuthukiseni ukukwazi ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala emabangeni asukela kwelokwamukela kuya kwelesithathu. Lwenzelwe ezikoleni lapho kusetshenziswa khona ulimi lweBele ukufunda nokufundisa. Ulwazi engilutholile ngiluhlaziye ngokuthi ngisebenzise imicabangonzulu eyahlukene exhumene nalolu cwaningo nohlaka lwenjulalwazi yemfundosiguquli kaJack Mezirow. Ngakho kulolu cwaningo ngicacise ngomgudu wesifanekisomqondweni engisilandelile, isayensi yobukhona bolwazi, nenzululwazi yobukhona beqiniso. Ngisebenzise indlelakubuka yokuhlolisisa ngoba injongo yalolu cwaningo ukuletha ushintsho. Ngibe sengisebenzisa isifanekisomqondweni socwaningo lokuchazwa kwezizwe zomhlaba esincike ocwaningweni lobunjalo botho. Ngisebenze nothisha abangama-30 abafundisa ezikoleni ezisesiYingini sasePhayindane KwaZulu-Natali eNingizimu-Afrika befundisa amabanga kusukela kwelokwamukela kuya kwelesithathu. Lolu cwaningo luveze ukuthi othisha basantula indlelande kanye nolwazi lokufundisa amakilasi axube ngokwezilimi. Kuphinde kwavela ukuthi nakuba othisha benengcindezi yokuthi kumele basebenzise indlelande yokunyamanisa kodwa abanalo ulwazi mayelana nale ndlelande futhi abakutholi ukwesekwa okwanele nguMnyango WezeMfundo Emazingeni Aphansi yingakho bengenako ukuzethemba ngokuyisebenzisa. Izimpahlasiseko ezisetshenziswayo azinalo ulimi olwakha umqondo, ulimi olukhona lunobubha, izithombe zingongqimu abangahlobene nokubhaliwe futhi azihehi. Kuvelile nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezinganekwane kuqinisa imfundo yokukwazi ukufunda nokubhala kulawa mabanga. Engikuphakamisile ngukuthi kumele othisha besekwe ngokuthi bathuthukiswe ekufundiseni ngokusetshenziswa kwendlelayokunyamanisa kodwa ithwaxane nezinganekwane ukuze babe nokuzethemba uma beyisebenzisa. Indlelande yokusebenzisa izinganekwane ukufundisa ukukwazi ukufunda nokubhala kumele ithuthukiswe ngabacwaningi. Amatemu Anqala: Izinganekwane, indlelande, ukunyamanisa, ukukwazi ukufunda nokubhala.
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    Using the reading to learn methodology to teach isiZulu reading in a grade three class: a teacher’s self-study.
    (2023) Ntombela, Bongiwe.; Bertram, Carol Anne.; Kortjass, Makie.
    In this self-study research I examined my teaching of isiZulu home language reading in my Grade 3 class using the Reading to Learn methodology (R2L). Undertaking this self-study emanated from the concerns I had about my learners’ lack of participation in class, resulting in low reading development. Conducting this research assisted me to uncover my behavioural and emotional traits that created a negative atmosphere for learning. That kind of working environment influenced my daily practice and identity. Throughout the 27 years of my teaching I have been a foundation phase teacher who is very passionate about my work and knew myself as effective in developing learners’ knowledge and skills. I was keen to improve my professionalism, and so, after three years in a college of education I decided to pursue further studies. After many years of using the same teaching methods that were used by my teachers when I was a learner, I was introduced to the R2L methodology in 2012. I became one of the trainers training teachers who were keen to use the methodology. I used R2L for six years, perceiving myself as a productive teacher, as the development of my learners’ literacy skills was noticeable. I was happy with my teaching strategies until I moved to another school, where I experienced teaching challenges and therefore decided to explore my teaching practice through the self-study methodology. In this research I used multiple methods, one being life history, which allowed me to revisit my past, my attitudes, and my beliefs so that I could examine myself and change. As much as I was at the centre of the study and potentially an agent in the construction of knowledge, I also worked collaboratively with critical friends to demonstrate its validity and trustworthiness. I used the collage as an arts-based method to represent and reflect on my classroom practice. The collage was also used to stimulate reflection with critical friends and to agree on possible solutions to my problems, thereafter explaining my learnings that emerged from our discussions. Doing this self-study and reflecting on my professional practice has revealed the issues about myself that I was not aware of and released me from being confined by my past personal and professional experiences. I used journal entries to collect data by regularly documenting the events that took place during teaching and learning and recording my feelings about what happened. Another data collection method was video recordings that were done in the first three terms in 2021 to capture my teaching practice and my interaction with learners. I also used the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) which I administered as a baseline test at the beginning of 2021 and again towards the end of the same year to determine my learners’ reading progress. The findings of this study indicate that through reflecting on my practice and working with critical friends, my teaching and interaction with learners changed and my learners’ achievement demonstrated the significant improvement in reading fluency and comprehension over the year 2021.
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    Exploring the conception of quality education. An ethnographic inquiry in a secondary school.
    (2022) Manoj, Sunassee.; Ramrathan, Labby.; Mariaye, Hyleen.
    This study explores the conception of quality education in a secondary school in Mauritius. It seeks to know how a secondary school community makes meaning of the notion of Quality Education and how the notion of quality education is enacted and experienced in a secondary school. The theoretical framework for Quality Education (Tikly & Barrett, 2011) was used to provide the necessary analytical tools, based on the two primary educational lenses, the Human Capital and the Humanist theories, to deepen insight and expand the perspective on quality education. In addition, the framework also provides adequate space to study the phenomenon of quality education under the influence of the three environments: home, school and policy. The research methodology used in the study was an Ethnographic inquiry. It was chosen as it allows the researcher to access the social reality of the people in the school site, PWSS ( Creswell, 2012). Also, I chose to enter the research site with an insider researcher's perspective, so that I could bring out more insights into the school's psychological, social, and cultural dimensions of the phenomenon, Quality Education. Data was produced through interviews, participant observations, the review of documents, qualitative questionnaires, and Focus Group Discussions so as to unravel how the participants make meaning of Quality Education through their school experiences. A purposive sampling technique was used based on Creswell's (2013) and Merriam (2009) arguments. The selected learner participants were from three different categories of learners, Grade 9. Grade 10 and grade 12, In the same way, six teachers, both male and female, were selected based on their teaching experience at PWSS - with at least three years of experience at the school. Also, two parents were chosen based on their availability and the school's rector. The research came up with the following findings: (i) quality education is a fluid concept that changes according to the agenda of the person using or viewing it (ii) high academic achievement, holistic development, discipline and values, 21st-century skills, cared pedagogy approach, quality teachers were among the outcomes of quality education, (iii) all provisions enacted for quality education forms an integral part of quality education, (iv) Distributed leadership as the most wanted type of leadership in a venture for Quality Education (v) Policies that favour inclusion and equity are referred as Quality policies for Quality Education and (vi) Quality Education is expressed as pride, reputation, and excellence.
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    Learning social justice through a transformative and emancipatory framed LLB internship programme.
    (2023) Van Der Merwe, Ebenhaezer.; Reddy, Saras.; Ramrathan, Labby.; McQuoid-Mason, David.
    Debates and discontent regarding the South African LLB programme culminated in a qualification standards document compiled by the Council on Higher Education. Dated May 2015, the LLB Standards qualification document set benchmarks for all South African law schools. An abbreviated extract from the qualification standards relevant to this study is that an LLB graduate must be able to critically reflect on his/her work and the work of others, transfer legal knowledge, apply social justice imperatives, promote social justice goals and understand the profession’s responsibilities of service to the community. Therefore, it is required to explore whether South African law graduates sufficiently understand social justice imperatives in the law context as required by the LLB standards document. Moreover, constant calls for legal education reform emerged from academia, the legal fraternity, and the judiciary. The study sought to address the calls for reform and the LLB standards by designing and implementing an internship programme framed by a transformative and emancipatory pedagogy and social justice orientation in a clinical law setting within the University of KwaZulu-Natal Howard College Campus Law Clinic. There is a dearth of local South African legal literature on legal internships, and international literature indicates that most legal internship programmes focus on teaching law students’ legal skills. The internship programme under study focuses on learning about social justice as its primary aim while also acquiring legal skills. It explores how a final year LLB student can best learn to critically reflect on his/her work and the work of others, transfer legal knowledge, apply social justice imperatives, promote social justice goals and understand the profession’s service responsibilities to the community. The facets of social justice the study participants encountered relate to vulnerable groupings in the community. The internship consisted of an 84-hour contact programme. Data were collected from eight final-year clinical Law LLB students before, during, and after the internship programme's implementation during the July 2015 University term break. The data production strategy included a pre-internship self-administered questionnaire to explore the interns' understanding of social justice— daily reflective journal entries reflecting on the day's activities and post-internship interviews. Data collection analysis followed the themes identified in the literature and the theoretical framing of the study. The study results relate to the perspective transformation of the intern participants on a personal level, how the intern participants relate to society, and the perspective transformation of the intern participants from a legal and educational perspective. The study adds to the knowledge on legal internships, particularly those emphasizing social justice concerning vulnerable groupings in society.
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    Academic writing experiences and literacy development of engineering students at a South African university of technology.
    (2023) Makhanya, Nontsikelelo Lynette Buyisiwe.; Shawa, Lester Brian.
    This study drew on the Cultural Capital Theory and the Academic Literacy Model to explore the academic writing and literacy development experiences of Engineering students at a selected university of technology in South Africa. The study sought to explore the literacy experiences of Engineering student participants over time to determine the efficacy of the knowledge and skills they acquired in relation to academic writing and literacy development. Three critical questions were posed: ● What are Engineering students’ experiences of academic writing and literacy development at the selected university of technology under study in KwaZulu-Natal Province? ● How do Engineering students experience academic writing and academic literacy support offered by the Academic Literacy and Language Support unit at the university of technology under study? ● Why do Engineering students experience academic writing and literacy development the way they do at the selected university of technology under study? Qualitative research methodologies were employed. This study was also underpinned by the interpretive paradigm which is characterised by the concern for the individual and the desire to understand the subjective world of human experience. Data were produced using in-depth semi-structured interviews and reflective journal entries and were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings revealed that, although the participating students were underprepared to engage with academic writing at university level, there was improvement in their academic writing skills over time. The study contributes to knowledge of our understanding of how to improve the academic writing capabilities and literacy development of students, including those who come from rural and low socio-economic backgrounds and whose academic development is often retarded by limited cultural capital. The study further highlights the role of IsiZulu (the predominant language in Kwa-Zulu-Natal province) in the academic writing and literacy development of rural students whose first language is IsiZulu. The study also highlights the value of the selected theoretical framing and the methodological approaches that were employed as these contributed significantly to the outcomes as described in this thesis. The unique contribution of this study to the pool of knowledge and scholarly endeavour is the integrated approach that it proposes for embedding literacies within discipline-specific content at the institution of higher learning under study.
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    Promoting inclusive learning through Universal Design of Instruction (UDI): exploring the potential of UDI to enhance learning for students with visual disabilities in the classroom.
    (2022) Singh, Jayshree.; Suknunan, Sachin.
    Globally, there is an abundance of research on the Universal Design of Instruction for students with visual disabilities in universities in developed countries, yet there remains a paucity of such research and practice in a South African setting. There has been a steady increase in the number of students with disabilities in Higher Education Institutions in South Africa, with a significant number of students with visual disabilities. The study therefore capitalised on this gap and examined the potential of the Universal Design of Instruction to promote epistemological access for students with visual disabilities in the classroom within a Higher Education setting in order to maximise learning outcomes. The study was conducted at the University of KwaZulu- Natal, which has the highest number of students with disabilities in the country. At the time of the study, the institution had approximately 709 students with disabilities, with a total of 204 students with visual disabilities. The study was underpinned by applicable theoretical frameworks which included Systems Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Sen's Capability Approach and the Social Model of Disability. A mixed-methods approach was instituted for indepth research. A census approach was utilised for the quantitative component of the study, which entailed distributing a questionnaire to all students with visual disabilities and those that responded became the sample. The qualitative aspect entailed in-depth interviews with students with visual disabilities and purposive sampling was utilised. The analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 21 Quantitative) and NVIVO 12 (Qualitative) respectively, which produced an array of descriptive and inferential statistics. The results affirmed the dire lack of Universal Design of Instruction in the classroom, which negatively impacted on students with visual disabilities and created barriers to learning. Academic achievement was hence compromised and students felt excluded. The findings clearly indicate that the implementation of the Universal Design of Instruction can alleviate barriers to learning and promote academic outcomes. Through the findings, a conceptual Universal Design of Instruction model for the classroom was proposed, supported by correlations and the lived experiences of students with visual disabilities. Recommendations include high-level interventions, inclusive of Universal Design of Instruction being on the Executive Management Agenda, policy re-formulation, specialised Universal Design of Instruction Committees inclusive of voices of students with visual disabilities, and the re-conceptualisation of classroom and learning spaces. Future research, amongst others, generated from this study can include comparative studies of this nature with other South African Higher Education Institutions, as well as the gaps between developed and developing countries in terms of the Universal Design of Instruction in the classroom.
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    The leadership and management geographies in the lived experiences of women educational leaders in the public secondary educational system of Mauritius – a narrative inquiry.
    (2021) Aliraja, Bye Salim.; Morojele, Pholoho Justice.; Narod, Fawzia.
    The leadership and management geographies in the lived experiences of women educational leaders in the public secondary educational system of Mauritius – A narrative inquiry. The study aims to explore and understand how three women educational leaders made their way to attain and sustain in leadership and management positions, in the male-dominated leadership spaces of the public secondary educational system, using narratives of their life experiences. On the one hand, the challenges lie in feminist emancipation and navigating the gendered socioeconomic and cultural challenges. On the other hand, policymakers have not been taking enough action to facilitate and promote the professional access of women into leadership spaces, although legislations are present. Locating this study in the qualitative interpretive paradigm, three purposively sampled women participants, each having different cultural and ethnic backgrounds and living in urban and rural regions (eastern, central and western) of Mauritius, were interviewed. Through the narrative inquiry method, they storied their life-history biographical experiences revealing their sadness’s and traumas, achievements and joys, tensions and emotions, dilemmas, challenges and coping strategies. Since this study had women educational leaders as participants, I created and used a Socio- Feminist and Gender (SFG) conceptual framework derived from leadership, feminism, gender and socio-constructionism theoretical constructs. The SFG framework allowed for the exploration of the participants ascending into educational leadership and management positions in male dominated leadership and management spaces. It also provided the analytical framing to understand any specificity about women’s leadership and their leadership practices and any changing relationships in home and family settings and organisations due to their positions as women educational leaders. The SFG conceptual framework also attempts to uncover the challenges and strategies adopted by women educational leaders to be sustained in leadership spaces. In the descriptive analysis phase, the generation of data, guided by the research questions and the SFG conceptual framework, produced three main themes that became the categories for the narrative analysis method used in this study. Through the analysis of the narrative method, the ultimate core findings of the research showed that the women participants had used a multitude of resources such as Family and patriarchy; Religion and spirituality; social Adversities; ethnic and political Contexts; and Gender and power dynamics (FRACEG) to emerge as leaders. In addition, the findings also revealed that these resources were instrumental in shaping the women participants’ career-path into leadership and management spaces. They also sculptured the leadership and management characteristics needed for them to navigate through the male dominated leadership and management spaces of the secondary educational system. The results demonstrate that the experiences acquired by the women-participants tend to enhance their leadership and management capabilities significantly. These women developed their leadership and management skills by practising disciplines, taking on more projects, learning to follow, developing situational awareness, inspiring others, staying attuned with learning, resolving conflicts, and by being discerning listeners. In addition, they undertook to use their abilities to deal resourcefully with unusual problems, together with the persistent efforts and perseverance that has shaped their personalities. Hence, the overall findings showed that the participants as women educational leaders rely on multi-combinations and permutations of leadership and management styles for different challenges at different times and places, including the use of improvisation, within all the complexities of leadership and management. This I have termed as “Feminine Quantum Leadership”, a theoretical construct using the construct and metaphor of Quantum Chemistry. Simultaneously, the women participants embraced the art of self-creative diplomacy (a feminine characteristic) by struggling with the challenges faced (feminist emancipation), leading to a new feminist leadership approach which I have called “Diplo-Poiesis Feminist Leadership”. These findings add valuable insights into the discourses of socio-constructionism, feminism, genderism and leadership in education and society. Last but not least, the benefits of leadership and management are extensively reported as being highly effective and productive. There is consensus that leadership and management can be regarded as a mechanism that facilitates women’s transition from a lower to a higher hierarchy within the gendered social context. The contribution of this research intends to emancipate women more to attain leadership and management positions in society. The women participants, as role models, contribute to the emancipation of the feminine gender and social justice in different spaces and landscapes. Therefore, this study shows the geographies of leadership and management of women educational leaders in the public secondary educational system. Keywords: geographies, leaders, women, educational, society, cultural, ethnic, hierarchy, gender, experiences, narrative inquiry, feminist geography, resources, complexity, quantum, leadership, diplomacy, feminism.
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    Understanding and enhancing learner integration in a selected ex-model c school.
    (2022) Kanyopa, Theresia Joakim.; Hlalele, Dipane Joseph.
    This study researched the understanding and enhancing of learner integration in a selected Ex-Model C school. This study viewed learner integration as a crucial element in the South African schools’ context because this phenomenon is linked to the psycho-social elements of the learners’ well-being in their learning environment. The study also maintains that learner integration has a transformative agenda as it is now based on democracy, social justice, and emancipation of educational practices that were negatively affected by the apartheid policies inherent in the previous education system in South Africa. This implies that learner integration is essential in ensuring that democracy, equity, and equality are entrenched in South African schools, specifically in Ex-Model C schools. Furthermore, learner integration supports the emancipation of these learners and enhances collaboration with the various educational stakeholders by showing that their contribution and commitment to this issue might bring changes and create an effective learner integration for all the learners at school, whilst enabling them to learn, grow and develop holistically in their learning environment. A growing body of literature has shown that there are some shortcomings in the former Model C schools’ system that inhibit the implementation of effective learner integration as well as the learning process, growth, and development of the learners in their learning environment. This study proposes an integration wheel that illustrates ways in which Ex-Model C schools could create a conducive learning environment with an effective learner integration implementation. This is a qualitative research study that was guided by a Participatory Action Research design within the interpretive-cum-critical paradigm. The study employed multiple data generation methods consisting of several stakeholder meetings and photovoice visual data based on a reflective writing activity in response to the research questions. The Critical Emancipatory Research (CER) is the theoretical framework because it emphasises the emancipation, promotion of social justice, and empowerment of the co-researchers. The research process of this study drew on the CER theory principles whereby, the data were generated from the coresearchers’ voices reflecting their perspectives, subjective experiences and knowledge concerning the understanding and enhancing of learner integration in their school. Moreover, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was used to analyse the data generated from the multiple methods mentioned above. CDA is compatible with PAR and CER because it is emancipatory by nature, and it allows the co-researchers participation in the data analysis procedures by actively involving them in discourse that attempt to shape and transform their society. The study drew on the findings from the diverse lived experiences, knowledge, and perspectives of the co-researchers of the study. The findings of the study revealed three themes: (i)Multi-perspectival understanding of learner integration in an Ex-Model C school context, (ii)Dynamism in the enhancement of learner integration; and (iii) Significance of the understanding and enhancing of learner integration. The findings from the first theme revealed that multi-perspectives on the co-researchers’ understanding of the learner integration phenomenon. The second theme of the study showed that co-researchers have the capabilities to suggest dynamic strategies for the enhancement of learner integration within their schools. This theme found that effective learner integration in an Ex-Model C school could be possible through multidimensional strategies that could be employed by the school authority as well as by the school community. Finally, the third theme reveals the significance and need for the understanding and enhancing process of learner integration issues in a selected Ex Model C school. The co-researcher’s comments on this theme indicated that learner integration has a huge impact not just on a learner’s academic achievements but also on their overall well-being as individuals. However, in Chapter Seven (section 7.3) the study revealed several implications that emerged from the findings of the study regarding learner integration such as poor support from some of the parents and teachers and monocultural practices. Chapter Three (section 3.5) of this study presents a literature review on the impediments that inhibit the successful implementation of learner integration in various school contexts. Thus, to deal with the impediments that hinder the successful learner integration in a selected Ex-Model C school, this study insisted that the school itself, the Department of Education (DOE) through the curriculum developers needs to work hand-in-hand with other educational stakeholders like teachers, parents, learners, and the school community.
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    Bullying in physical and cyber spaces: experiences of young adult survivors in the digital age.
    (2023) Jacobs, Suhana.; John, Vaughn Mitchell.
    Bullying has become a serious problem for young people all over the world. Using action research within the critical paradigm, this qualitative study examines the experiences of young adult survivors of both physical and cyber bullying. Against a backdrop of rapid technological advances in social media communication and the blurring of physical and virtual bullying contexts, survivors provide poignant insights into how they grapple with the psycho-social impacts of their experiences. These impacts include pain, poor self-image, fear, loneliness, and feelings of dehumanisation. The study reveals that filmed incidents of physical bullying posted on social media tethers the physical realm to cyber space creating shifts and extensions along the dimensions of content, space, time, and participants. One of the unique contributions of this study is a discussion on the interlocking nature of the four dimensions of extension which gives rise to the concept of extended bullying. The exploration of these multiple extensions provides insights into a particular and complex form of bullying across physical and cyber spaces and how to develop educational interventions in response. The research design, supported by the theoretical insights of Paulo Freire, Bradley Evans, and Henry Giroux, provides a framework for knowledge production through partnerships that involved reflection, sustained dialogue, and creative action with survivors, youth and teachers. While revealing how pervasive and damaging extended bullying is, the study also exposes how psycho-social impacts are only fully recognised and understood when the phenomenon of bullying is viewed through the prism of multidimensional extensions. The study emphasises the need to balance rigorous scholarship with the promotion of democratic social change.
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    Integration of philosophy into basic education in Nigeria: teachers’ perspectives.
    (2022) Ekpo, Iniobong Godwin.; Maharajh, Lokesh Ramnath.
    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of teachers concerning the possibility or otherwise, of integrating philosophy into basic education in Nigeria. The qualitative research method which utilized the interpretive paradigm to explore the phenomenon, integration of philosophy into basic education was used. The case study approach was chosen as the research design to conduct this study. This study utilized the interviews and focus group discussions as strategies of qualitative research to interact with the teachers to gain more understanding into their perspectives. Sixteen (16) teachers of mixed gender and different ages with diverse teaching experiences were purposively selected from eight (8) schools in both rural and urban areas, as well as from private and public schools. To answer already identified critical questions, data was generated from participants through a semi-structured interview guide and the study was theoretically framed using the reconceptualist theory of curriculum to make meaning of the findings where teachers provided inputs in exploring the study. Exploration of the four major research questions revealed twenty-four (24) major themes as findings with implications for educational development as follows: teachers’ construction of philosophy; teachers’ construction of philosophy of education; teachers’ opinion of the knowledge which philosophy provides; teachers’ views on the benefits of integrating philosophy into basic education; teachers’ perceived challenges on integrating philosophy into basic education; teachers’ views on the significance of integrating philosophy into basic education; teachers’ opinion on how the integration of philosophy can improve teaching and learning; teachers’ opinion on how philosophy helps pupils to learn; teachers’ views on how philosophy helps teachers to teach better; teachers’ construction of how philosophy should be integrated into basic education; teachers’ opinion on how philosophy can enhance learners’ lived experiences; teachers’ opinion of aspects of philosophy to be taught in basic education; teachers’ views on how philosophy should be taught in basic education; teachers’ opinion on who should teach philosophy; teachers’ prescription of tools to be used in teaching philosophy; teachers’ recommendations on training to be given to the teacher of philosophy; teachers’ opinion of philosophical content knowledge to be taught in schools; teachers’ views on how philosophy enhances learners’ learning; teachers’ experiences on how the knowledge of philosophy enhances their teaching; teachers’ views on how philosophy affects teaching; teachers’ views on ways in which teaching philosophy may inhibit overall learning; teachers’ views on how to enhance teaching strategies of philosophy in basic education; teachers’ reasons to enhance philosophy teaching strategies in basic education; teachers’ miscellaneous views on integrating philosophy into basic education. Findings from this study revealed that there is an urgent necessity to integrate philosophy into basic education, hence the study recommends the integration of philosophy into the Nigerian basic education curriculum.
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    Social protection through higher education: experiences of Community Work Programme participants studying for a teaching qualification by distance education mode.
    (2023) Makwara, Cephas.; Hugo, Wayne.
    Poverty and unemployment have led to the creation of social protection programmes by governments, which include public works programmes. In South Africa, the Community Work Programme (CWP) employs rural individuals living in poverty for a limited number of days each month as part of a second economy strategy project. To improve the chances of these participants to find full-time employment in the primary economy, the CWP partnered with North-West University and the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs to pilot a programme for selected participants to enrol for a Grade R teaching diploma by distance education. CWP participants in the Ugu District in the province of KwaZulu-Natal were selected. While studying, the participants worked at rural schools near their homes as CWP participants. This study sought to explore the experiences of the participants in the pilot before the project went to scale. Informed by the critical paradigm, the study used the extended case method, drawing on Bourdieu's field theory and Archer's concepts of structure, culture and agency for analysis. The study found that while rural participants experienced barriers in terms of physical and epistemic access to higher education, with adequate support many succeeded in earning their qualification and finding employment in the primary economy as teachers. Inherent challenges included the digital illiteracy of participants; travel distances and transportation costs; communication between partners and participants in the pilot; symbolic violence related to the language of teaching and learning; instability in the implementing structure resulting in diminished support for participants; and bureaucratic inefficiency and lack of alignment on the part of the partners to the programme. The exercise of agency was key to participants' success. The Work Integrated learning modules demonstrated complementarity between the requirements of the formal diploma qualification and the CWP requirement for useful work, although the increase in workdays as a teacher assistant reduced the time available for participants to study. The thesis contributes to the debate on Sustainable Development Goal 1 on strategies to end world poverty. The thesis argues that public works programmes can contribute to reducing unemployment with deliberate structuring of support and mentorship to enable students to acquire the higher education habitus required to succeed.
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    Voices of Eswatini general certificate of education geography teachers on teaching climate change.
    (2022) Dlamini, Boy Bongani.; Khoza, Simon Bhekumuzi.; Shoba, Makhosazana Edith.
    This dissertation presents a mixed methods research study (quantitative and qualitative) but mainly qualitative, of sixteen geography teachers who participated when this study sought their voices on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini. The study adopted a pragmatic paradigm and employed the educational design research (EDR) as its research design. The study was conducted with the main purpose of exploring teachers’ voices on the teaching of climate change in the Eswatini General Certificate of Secondary Education curriculum. To generate data, the reflective activity/questionnaire, artefacts inquiry, semi-structured interviews and a focus-group discussion were utilised for data generation. Purposive and convenience sampling methods were used in selecting four schools in each of the four districts of Eswatini and from each of the four schools, four teachers were requested to participate in this study. For data analysis, the study employed guided analysis to analyse generated data; and the thematic approach was used. Eight broad themes were used each with categories that were presented, analysed, and discussed in detail. Concerns of dependability, confirmability, credibility, and transferability were allayed in this study in order to ensure trustworthiness. Further to this, ethical issues were also considered in obtaining ethical clearance, gate-keeper’s permission, consent letters, and anonymity. The study was guided by three research questions namely: 1) What are geography teachers’ voices on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini? (descriptive) 2). How do the teachers’ voices influence the teaching of climate change in Eswatini? (operational) 3). Why are teachers’ voices the way they are on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini? (philosophical). The study’s objectives were: 1) to explore geography teachers’ voices on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini; 2) to understand how geography teachers’ voices influence the teaching of climate in Eswatini; and 3) to explore why the geography teachers’ voices are the way they are on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini. Subsequently, the research objectives and questions guided the study to review the relevant literature on teachers’ voices which were divided into: professional, societal, and personal voices. In an attempt to understand the voices that drive teachers’ voices the study utilised the currere model. The moments of the currere model were discussed in relation to selected curriculum themes and categories. The main findings indicated that teachers were predominantly summoned by either professional or societal voices when enacting climate change. It was affirmed that most teachers were torn in two by the tension that exists between these two giant voices (professional and societal voices) that dominate the curriculum enactment spaces. The literature and the findings in this study suggested that a neutral voice is needed to address the tension of the two major voices. The unbiased voice, it was discovered is the personal voice which results from the reflections which allow teachers to be able to combine the strength of the professional and societal. This would ensure the development of a unique personal voice to meet the needs of teachers. Thus, the model of teachers’ voices was born in this study as a theory that can be useful in teacher’s identities being considered in curriculum enactment spaces. In conclusion, it is in the best interests of this study that further research be carried out in all subjects and at all school levels in order to enrich the literature and bring consciousness in curriculum spaces. Teachers require a personal voice to drive the curriculum instead of being summoned by other voices that cause tension in the teaching and learning spaces.
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    Zimbabwean teachers’ imaging of self and their teaching practices in the context of education reforms.
    (2022) Kadodo, Webster.; Mbatha, Thabile.; Ramrathan, Peter.
    The research examined how education policy influenced Zimbabwean teachers‟ imaging of self as teachers and how that affected their teaching practices in the context of education reforms. The research adopted the qualitative research approach informed by the interpretive paradigm, with the narrative design informing data generation. The semi-structured interview and journal methods were used to initiate participants‟ interviews on the issues under review. Document and content analysis were employed to understand how the selected education policy influenced teachers‟ imaging of self as teachers and how that, in turn, affected their teaching practices. The results revealed that the three selected education policies influence how teachers image selves as teachers and, in turn, how that affects their teaching practices. Whilst the performance management system (PMS) and the Result-Based Management (RBM) created contrary views to those of teachers on what education is and what it means to be a teacher, the Practical Education Clocking Register system was viewed as a teacher control mechanism that curtailed teacher autonomy, thereby underplaying the teacher‟s moral image. Teacher supervision was viewed as more of play-acting rather than a true reflection of the teacher‟s day-to-day classroom performance. The research concluded that education policy development that excludes teachers‟ contributions affects their views of education and imaging of self as teachers, thereby influencing their teaching practices. The research recommends that education policy development should involve teachers so as to accommodate their concerns and ensure teachers‟ buy-in for successful education policy implementation. The research findings provide insights into how education policies influence teachers‟ imaging of self and their teaching practices.