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Doctoral Degrees (Education Studies)

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    Female principals’ leadership experiences in rural schools in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2024) Mutula, Dorah Lyaka.; Martin , Melanie Yvette.; Amin , Nyna.
    Women face multiple challenges in accessing and participating in educational leadership, and this remains a problem and compelling issue for research. This study aimed to explore female principals’ leadership experiences in six selected public primary rural schools in the KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. To understand women's leadership experiences, the study examined their biographies, early learning, and school experiences as leaders. An intersectional lens was employed to understand women’s multiple challenges encountered in educational leadership based on an interlocking system that shapes the interpersonal, organisational, and structural aspects of their experiences. This reflects Collin’s (2000) assertion that cultural, structural, and interpersonal domains are intertwined, collectively shaping gender dynamics.A qualitative approach with a narrative inquiry design was applied, and six female principals were purposively selected from rural schools. The data was collated using semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and photographs and analysed using content analysis. The findings reveal that women experience multiple challenges in the form of gender stereotypes, discrimination, prejudices, bias, rejection, and infantilisation. Women’s biography, early learning, and school experiences shape and influence how women lead. The study concludes that the nature of women’s leadership experiences is linked to multiple factors, situations, and events; thus, it is personal and complex, and rural women must overcome and surpass the challenges through resilience and supportive environments. The study has implications for leadership structures, women leaders, and policymakers.
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    A feminist analysis of Black lesbian students’ academic and social experiences at a technical and vocational education and training institution in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.
    (2023) Siwela, Sanele.; Sader, Saajidha Bibi.
    There is scant research regarding the experiences of Black lesbian students in relation to their access to tertiary education, their success at higher education institutions and their experiences with their lecturers and co-students, especially within the environment of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges. The lack of empirical research on the academic and social experiences of Black lesbian students has left a gap in the understanding of how their social identities intersect to influence their post-school education and training experiences. To address this gap in knowledge, I investigated the academic and social experiences of six Black lesbian students at a TVET college in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. This dissertation adopted an eclectic theoretic approach, using the African decolonial perspective of Oyeronke Oyèwùmí as well as the work of decolonial feminist theorist, Maria Lugones. I also drew on key concepts from Black feminist thinkers Patricia Hill-Collins and bell hooks – in particular, their concept of intersectionality. I used these frameworks to argue against the ongoing influences of past colonialism and apartheid that tend to permeate the institutional culture of TVET colleges in South Africa. This feminist research study adopted a qualitative methodology and used visual narrative inquiry. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, photo voice, reflective journaling and focus groups. Poetry was used as a data-generating reflective tool. Data analysis combined both visual narrative analysis and analysis of the narratives. Findings revealed institutional heterosexism and a lack of educational access for black lesbian students at this TVET college which impeded their educational participation and success, resulting in failure, absenteeism and dropout. Educational access is understood in this thesis as a multifaceted phenomenon that includes administrative, financial, physical, social, career guidance and epistemic aspects. Enablers to learning at the college included individual strategies (using their own agency) as well as strategies that the college could initiate. This included stronger support from lecturers to contribute to lesbian students’ participation in class and their academic success. Meeting other lesbians who were open about their sexual identities was also another enabler to learning, as it provided these students with a sense of belonging. Financial enablers to be able to attend a college and study were present in the form of the NSFAS grant, which covered their study costs and also enabled them to provide support to their families. Whilst there has been significant evolution in the TVET sector in terms of administrative access and funding for students, the provision of psychological support for minority students is still lacking. This study recommends that the Department of Higher Education develop ongoing psychological support interventions to address the negative psychological impacts LGBTQ+ students experience within the tertiary environment, inclusive curriculum and institutional policies. New college buildings should always include 3-5 individual toilets to provide an alternative for individuals who feel uncomfortable entering the main toilet blocks.
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    An exploration of the learners’ views on the efficacy of information communication technology in improving work performance : The case of KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health employees registered at a community learning centre in Durban.
    (2024) Malinga, Charlotte Lungiswa.; Harley, Anne.; Mbatha, Lulama Nothando.
    This study is situated in the context of adult education in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and is framed within the national policies of the Skills Development Act No. 31 of 2008 and the Human Resource Development Strategy of South Africa 2010-2030. These policies underscore the importance of providing continuous skills development and education opportunities for adults in the labour market, particularly emphasizing the need for basic education and training. The research focuses on evaluating the views of adult learners from the Department of Health in KwaZulu-Natal regarding the efficacy of the Information and Communication Technology Adult Basic Education and Training (INCT4) programme at a local Community Learning Centre. It examines how this programme impacts their work performance and personal lives. The study employs a qualitative research design within an interpretivist paradigm. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews with employees who had participated in the INCT4 program. This methodological approach was aimed at understanding the learners' perspectives on the skills they acquired and their application in both professional and personal contexts. The findings indicate that learners value the skills gained from the INCT4 programme highly, noting improvements in their work performance and personal life management. These skills enhanced their confidence and self-esteem, enabling them to undertake new tasks and engage more effectively in their professional roles. While the application of these skills varied across different job roles, all learners noted personal benefits, such as increased ability to use digital platforms independently. The study underscores the significance of adult education as a form of lifelong and life-wide learning. It highlights the role of self-directed learning in adult education, drawing on Knowles's theory of andragogy and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The research contributes to the understanding of how adult education can facilitate individual and societal development and underscores the need for adult education programmes to be relevant and responsive to learners' needs. The study concludes with a call for further research into the involvement of adult learners in the planning and evaluation of educational programs and the effectiveness of various learning areas in Community Learning Centers (CLCs).
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    A river runs through it : landscapes of learning, development and change of nontraditional workers.
    (2023) Cox, Amanda Jane.; John, Vaughn Mitchell.
    In the 21st century contexts in which we live, precarious work has become more prevalent. This study explored how workplace learning takes place for those of us who do not belong fully to an organisation. The need for lifelong and life-wide learning in formal, non-formal and informal ways becomes critical for non-traditional workers, who are defined as those who are not in traditional full-time employment but work on short-term contracts, often for multiple companies. This study focused on this niche group of professionals who work in alternative ways. I was drawn to conduct this study due to my own expectations and experiences about the world of work. Childhood mindsets about work being in one company and job for life were challenged and changed during my career, in which I found myself working in non-traditional ways, enjoying the flexibility that this way of working afforded me. Transformative learning theory, which is about a revision of frames of reference, was a helpful theoretical lens to explain some aspects of my career story. My unique career journey piqued my curiosity about how other non-traditional workers navigate their way into and through the world of work and how they develop as professionals in contexts of precarity. Communities of practice theory (a social learning theory) surfaced as a helpful theoretical lens to explore the learning journeys of my own and another five non-traditional workers. A narrative autoethnographic research approach and a participatory interview technique called river of life were used as the methodological roadmap to navigate my way through the study. The study explored the development of identities, the processes and sources of learning, and the implications of learning in such contexts. The findings identified the importance of lifelong and life-wide learning for non-traditional workers, culminating in the notion of careers being like living landscapes that are moving and changing as we engage in them. The important role of experience and the development of transferable skills was identified. The participants were also found to be good at managing multiplicity in their careers, working across subject areas, projects and multiple identities. Finally, an emerging culture of this type of worker was explored.
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    Learning financial literacy amongst adult Mauritians.
    (2023) Ramjeet, Amit Kumar.; Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy.; James, Angela Antoinette.; Mariaye, Marie Hyleen Sandra.
    Many countries, including Mauritius, have placed financial literacy high on their agenda, with stakeholders including banking and non-banking regulators, government policymakers and the financial industry considering it to be in their best interests to increase financial literacy and consumer awareness. This study assesses the perceptions and understanding of adult Mauritians regarding financial literacy. The research questions concern the state of financial literacy among the adult population, the means through which Mauritians become financially literate, how these learning experiences influence financial decision-making, and why acquisition of financial literacy happens in this way in Mauritius. The study was conducted with groups from varied geographical and socio-economic backgrounds, and tries to address the causal link between being financially literate and using this knowledge for financial decision-making. The findings will contribute to improving perceptions of financial literacy and its use in financial decision-making. Another aim is to identify the best tools, techniques and strategies that can be adopted to help the adult Mauritian population to become financially literate. Most financial literacy programmess are developed with little or no attention to adult learning theory, inclusive learning environments, or culturally responsive teaching. Rather they have been grounded more in financial risk investment models, life cycle consumption theories, or behavioural modification models adapted from a health behaviour model or a combination thereof. In this study both quantitative and qualitative research techniques are used to study the complexities of financial literacy, and substantial evidence has been amassed through this mixed-method approach. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were utilised in this concurrent mixed-method design. Findings from this study demonstrate the importance of financial knowledge for effective decision-making, while also indicating the usefulness of financial literacy for a good understanding of individual financial choices. This study also highlights the lack of institutional financial literacy initiatives, and its recommendations may be used to inform policymakers and practitioners on the best tools, techniques, and strategies for providing financial literacy to the population.
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    Teachers’ experiences of teaching an ancestral language in a multilingual context : the case of Telugu in Mauritius.
    (2023) Yenkanah, Shailendra.; Pillay, Ansurie.; Govender, Nadaraj Kumeren.; Rughoonundun-Chellapermal, Nita.
    Since the arrival of indentured immigrants to Mauritius in the 19th century, the teaching of the Telugu language has been present across various levels. Over time, it gained official recognition when it was formally incorporated into the curriculum as an ancestral language during the 1960s. The inclusion of ancestral languages as optional core subjects fulfils linguistic roles such as revitalisation, identity preservation, and cultural maintenance. This stands in contrast to compulsory subjects like English and French, which primarily serve as languages for epistemological development. Teachers teaching Telugu, like other ancestral languages, experience their role as teachers differently. This study delved into the nuances of these experiences. A case study design was employed to investigate and gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of teachers instructing Telugu in state secondary schools. Initial data sources, directed at the entire population, allowed me to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phenomenon and subsequently select participants for the subsequent phases. Adopting an interpretive phenomenological approach, I conducted semi-structured interviews with six participants in three distinct settings. The collected data were analysed through the application of a socio-cultural perspective and Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. This approach and theory provided a framework to comprehend the experiences of a culturally and linguistically minority group of teachers within a multilingual environment. Various constructs and concepts such as ‘language power’, ‘’minority languages, ‘linguistic identity’, ‘language preservation’, and ‘revitalisation’ were unpacked and a thematic approach was employed to interpret and analyse the data. The study reveals that Telugu teachers exhibit a strong sense of attachment and belonging to the language of their immigrant forefathers, even though it is largely no longer spoken. Ascribing a distinct role and significance to their profession, these teachers exhibit language loyalty and actively contribute to the preservation of the language. Telugu teachers are actively involved in the revitalisation process, and the existing language policies lead to transformations in identities and experiences of Telugu teachers over time. Telugu teachers mediate the use and study of the language by maintaining a home environment where Teluguness is omnipresent. Socio-cultural factors influence the experiences of teachers and the participating Telugu teachers were socially involved and influenced by their engagement in socio-cultural activities in socio-cultural spaces.
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    Online informal learning and 21st century skills among secondary school students : the Mauritian context.
    (2023) Pentiah, Bharatee.; Blewett, Craig Neville.; Govender, Desmond Wesley.; Ramful, Ajay.
    Informal learning refers to most human learning that takes place outside of the official educational system. In this technological era, every secondary student is exposed to digital or online tools in either for academic purposes or for their leisure activities or for learning something new on any topic of interest informally. What has not been explored yet is the extent to which secondary school learners can acquire 21st Century Skills through Online Informal Learning in the absence of a formal school setting. 21st Century skills are abilities and competencies that today’s students need to possess to become global citizens in this competing working market. Since technology plays a vital role in the learning process of students outside their school settings, it can also act as an important medium for them to communicate, collaborate, and develop their 21st Century Skills such as creativity, digital literacy, and critical thinking. In response to the underexplored gap in the literature, the researcher embarked on an explorative investigation of the development of 21CS through Online Informal Learning of secondary school students using Web 2.0 tools. To adequately address the phenomenon under study, the first research question aimed to explore the various kinds of OIL that are available to secondary school pupils. The second and third research questions were formulated to investigate how secondary school students grow and acquire 21CS through OIL. To further the objectives of the study, qualitative and quantitative methods were integrated to provide a more complete comprehension of the phenomenon and provide answers to the research questions. By analysing the literature review, the researcher designed a conceptual framework underpinned by the six components of Engeström’s Activity Theory, the P21 (Framework for 21st Century Learning), and the three dimensions of Fenwick and Tennant (2004). In a mixed-method explanatory sequential research process, data were derived from secondary school pupils who utilised internet technologies in informal contexts in semi-structured interviews, surveys, and focus group interviews. In the quantitative phase, 310 questionnaires were collected from secondary school students between 11 to 18 years old. The data were then aligned with the conceptual framework. Further, data analysis and trend and correlation detection were performed using quantitative and qualitative models to understand how and why informal online learning (OIL) affects the abilities of 21st century secondary school learners. The findings revealed that certain online resources are utilised for online informal learning while others are used for both informal and formal learning. Furthermore, it was also discovered that social networking sites and instant messaging technologies contribute to online informal learning. The data gathered from the learners’ replies identified the following types of Online Informal Learning among secondary school students: self-directed learning, collaborative learning, explorative learning, accidental Online Informal Learning, self-discovery learning, and intentional learning. The study contributes valuable insights into the potential of OIL to complement formal education and promote critical thinking for lifelong learning. Moreover, the research identifies the pedagogical approaches that are effective in OIL environments. The findings of this study can help educators understand how OIL assists secondary school learners in similar contexts across the world. Significantly, the model proposed in the study provides a framework for future research in this area regarding the use of online informal tools as a foundation to promote learning.
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    Teachers’ understanding and enhancement of learning for sustainability in Mauritian primary schools.
    (2022) Hinchoo, Threelocknath Sing.; Hlalele, Dipane Joseph.; Bholah, Ravhee.
    Mauritius, a small island, is confronted by numerous environmental challenges such as pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The Government developed various policies and strategies at different levels to address these issues to sustain the country’s resources and to maintain the island’s greenery. The education sector has entrenched Learning for Sustainability (LFS) in the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) with the vision of learners becoming responsible citizens. The current NCF which highlights the learning outcomes, acts as a guide for teachers regarding the implementation of the LFS content. Although many concepts and values pertaining to environmental and social citizenship (such as helping and sharing) are taught at school (MoEHR, 2016), the objectives are still to be realised. Many challenges which threaten children’s future have arisen over the years; these are because they continue growing up in an environment that may become unsustainable. School curricula, through LFS, can intervene in this endeavour (Casinader, 2021). The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ understanding and enhancement of LFS in primary schools using a participant-designed action research methodology, within a multiple case study design framework. The potential value of the participant-designed action research methodology’s findings was to inform teachers and school administrators about teachers’ understanding of LFS in the Mauritian education context. Theoretically, the research drew from two models, Burns’ Model of Sustainability Pedagogy and O’Donoghue’s Active Learning Framework. Burns’ Model of Sustainability Pedagogy focuses on the current need to align teaching and learning strategies with contemporary socio-cultural and ecological issues by empowering and transforming learners into agents of sustainability for the future. O’Donoghue’s Active Learning Framework provides opportunities for authentic decisionmaking that has a positive impact on local communities. Learning for Sustainability may be simply understood as a concept that describes all educational activities concerned with developing an understanding of related concepts in sustainability. However, teachers struggled to align their understanding and practice of LFS, and thus could not efficiently enhance the quality of teaching-learning. Hence, this study aimed to intervene and potentially ‘redress’ the weaknesses in the schools’ teaching and learning system which included observations and reflections in order to generate data from six participants. Data generated was analysed by applying the thematic analysis approach which facilitated categorising and interpreting data into common themes which were synthesised and generalised to provide an overall representation of the case study. The findings indicated that there were various understandings of LFS among primary school teachers which significantly influenced their attempts to enhance the teaching of LFS. This was inconsistent with the various levels of knowledge about teachers’ understanding and their enhancement of LFS; it should have elicited a positive change in teachers’ understanding of LFS practices. Further, the study’s results revealed that LFS enhances teachers’ practices and experiences by exposing them to new knowledge which increases their understanding of LFS. It is recommended that this study concientises other teachers, school leaders, policymakers, and curriculum writers and designers to incisively understand LFS, address the dearth of data on the subject, and provide insights for future teachers to improve the teaching-learning of LFS by ushering in transformation and adaptation strategies to promote best practice.
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    Victors or victims? an exploration of how teachers navigate changes in teaching and learning during the covid-19 pandemic.
    (2022) Pillay, Lucas.; Jairam, Visvaranie.
    For many learners and teachers, 2020 and 2021 manifested many challenges, at home and school, as a result of the global pandemic, including facing serve illnesses, death of a loved one, experiencing abrupt school closures, disruption of the teaching and learning process, and the feeling fear, grief, and anxiety as Covid-19 spread. Education shifted from traditional methods of learning to remote and online learning. Teachers and learners found themselves teaching and learning in front of screens at home and in other settings. Even with efforts by teachers, staff, and school principals, many of whom swiftly established online lessons, remote teaching plans, and concrete strategies for meeting learners’ educational basic needs, the challenges were profound. This study explores how teachers navigated the changes in teaching and learning during the Covid-19 pandemic and provides guidance on creating an intervention programme. The study was conducted in three primary and three secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven participants were purposely selected for this study. This study employed a qualitative approach and an interpretivist paradigm, as it is grounded in the world of lived experiences. Data was produced through collages, reflective journals, and interviews. Thereafter, a narrative was developed. Emerging from the data, an intervention programme guide and model was created to assist educational stakeholders in the creation of tailor-made intervention programmes based on their unique school context. Kurt Lewin’s (1951) theory of change was the theoretical framework that underpinned this study, which provided insights on how changes in an institution can occur. Lewin’s (1951) theory of change and the data generated from this study influenced the Navigating Change Theory which is presented in this thesis. From the data produced from the participants, it is revealed that there are many changes and challenges in teaching and learning that need to be carefully navigated to achieve educational goals. This study extensively presents ways in which teachers, victoriously, navigated the changes in teaching and learning during the Covid-19 pandemic.
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    Lecturers’ understanding and enhancement of student engagement at a higher education institution: an appreciative inquiry.
    (2022) Muthusamy, Nirashnee.; Hlalele, Dipane Joseph.
    The purpose of this study was to explore lecturers’ understanding and enhancement of student engagement at a higher education institution through an appreciative inquiry approach. This investigation was intended to unearth strategies to enhance student engagement at a higher education institution, and to understand how and why such strategies enhance student engagement. A qualitative case study was deemed to be suitable to explore lecturers’ understanding and enhancement of student engagement. The study was informed by an appreciative interpretivist paradigm in conjunction with an appreciative inquiry theoretical framework. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select participants consisting of eight lecturers who facilitate compulsory modules pertaining to the Bachelor of Education (Foundation and Intermediate Phases) programme at one higher education institution in KwaZulu-Natal. The data generation methods utilised in this study were appreciative interviews, discursive informed conversations, and an open-ended questionnaire. All participants were subjected to all three data generation methods. The study’s data generation methods were designed in accordance with the principles and phases of an appreciative inquiry (AI) which focuses on what is working, rather than what is wrong. Findings revealed that lecturers at a higher education institution understand student engagement as active participation which entails being interactive in lectures. Further, active participation involves collaboration, co-constructive relationships, interaction, and metacognition. More importantly, the study revealed strategies that encourage active participation such as immersing oneself in the module, humanising content, creating interconnectedness, using a variety of resources, being positively involved in class activities, applying content to real-life situations, utilising interactive teaching aids, ensuring thorough lecture preparation, authenticating the learning experience, creating opportunities for critical-thinking, providing quality feedback, facilitating smaller groups and tutorials, creating a supportive learning environment, encouraging work-integrated learning and innovative models, and reviewing content and pedagogical practices. The study also revealed that the enhancement of student engagement through active participation is fulfilling and linked to success. This was assisted by effective lecturer-student cooperation, application, and reflection of knowledge, practicing acceptable societal values, preparation of students for the 21st-century world-of-work, and giving positive and expeditious feedback to students. Based on the conclusions and findings, I have suggested further research on the topic but focusing on digital pedagogy that could provide further insight on student engagement. Due to Covid-19 protocols, the institution chosen for this research migrated to online learning, hence lecturers experienced challenges when engaging students on digital platforms. It is also recommended that future research explore in-depth the challenges that impede the enhancement of student engagement at higher education institutions so that barriers to learning could be eradicated.
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    Physical well-being of four-year-old learners and their readiness for Grade R.
    (2023) Pewa, Ngami Phumzile Isabella.; Mzimela, Patience Jabulile.
    Early childhood is a formative period during which distinguishable development has projections of bearing desirable outcomes within an individual. This critical period requires interventions that have ramifications for later life. This research study aimed at exploring physical well-being of four-year-old learners in relation to their readiness for Grade R. The study was particularly interested in their level of independence when carrying out certain physical activities. It also aimed at critically analysing the issues which enabled or constrained their physical well-being as well as early childhood development practitioners’ level of readiness to plan for indoor and outdoor physical activities. The study examined the use of both fine and gross motor skills in a learning environment. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory underpinned this study to understand the different environments in which a developing child finds himself/herself. It was conducted in an early childhood development centre located in Mandlankala, an area near Empangeni, north of Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Three early childhood development practitioners who fit the criteria and attributes of the study were purposively selected. An interpretivist qualitative case study methodological design was used. Findings revealed that learners experience challenges in toileting, thorough washing of hands and putting shoes on and off. Centrally important for the thesis was the crafting of a conceptual model that relates the objectives of the study to the findings and conceptual issues at stake in self-care skills in Grade R. This study concluded that physical well-being is a determinant of Grade R readiness as it acts as a precursor for self-care related activities. This study recommends that early childhood development practitioners should continue to offer both structured and unstructured physical activities throughout the day in their engagement. More parental involvement is needed so that good self-care skills can modelled and emulated from home.
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    Early childhood education in Ghana: teachers’ understanding and enactment of inclusion.
    (2022) Mohammed, Awudu Salaam.; Hlalele, Dipane Joseph.
    This study explored teachers’ understanding and enactment of Inclusion in Early Childhood Education (IECE) in Ghana. Inclusion theorises that, every child of school-going age must have access to quality education regardless of their cultural and socioeconomic dissimilarity. The keystone of the policy is to stimulate inclusion and lessen exclusions in the educational system. By utilising an interpretive qualitative multi-case study approach involving semi-structured interviews, observation, and photo-elicitation instruments, data from six study teachers was collected. The inductive thematic analysis method was used to interpret the data. Findings from the study revealed IECE was understood as the accommodation and merging of learners with disability with their mainstream peers in the same learning environment to reduce stigmatisation, segregation, and exclusionary practices. Disability was a major factor influencing Ghana’s IECE practices, more than equity issues, ability, and stage of child’s enrolment. Despite the progressive principles underpinning IECE, the enactment of the programmes is encountering challenges due to various debilitating factors such as the lack of educational resources, funding, inappropriate training programmes, and conservative cultural views towards children with disabilities. The study recommended that for a high level of IECE practice, the policy should be supported by effective and ongoing training, Government support by providing the required resources, clear policy guidelines, and employing teachers with knowledge and understanding IECE. For an IECE school to succeed, a culture mind shift must begin at the top, with a coherent understanding, shared vision throughout the entire staff, commitment, and best practices in teaching and learning throughout the whole school community. Teachers, policymakers, and other role-players in education should view IECE in the context of learners’ rights to education rather than focusing on disability problems associated with exclusion and segregation. The exploration concludes that, even though the enactment of IECE is fraught with impediments, it is a reasonable practice that should be enacted to achieve national objectives since IECE exposes children to information and skills which is vital for economic growth and confidence building. By meaningfully adopting IECE and enacting it successfully, the nation’s current and future human resource development, will be enhanced. building. By meaningfully adopting the IECE policy and enacting it successfully, the nation’s current and future human resource development, will be enhanced.
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    Dynamics of implementing mainstream english curriculum at a school for the deaf in Eswatini.
    (2023) Khumalo, Sabelo Mlungisi.; Shoba, Makhosazana Edith.
    It is essential to explore the dynamics of implementing the mainstream English curriculum at a school for the deaf. This assists teachers to reflect and critique their practices and experiences with the aim of improving their classroom actions. It also helps to raise awareness of the natural identity of both teachers and learners at the school, with the hope of meeting individual needs and ultimately, the teaching and learning goals. This qualitative study employed the pragmatic paradigm and action research design. Seven teachers purposively sampled participated in the study six teachers of English and the school principal. The study was guided by three research questions: 1) What are the dynamics of implementing the mainstream English curriculum at the school for the deaf in Eswatini? (descriptive); 2) How do the dynamics of the mainstream English curriculum influence its implementation in the school for the deaf? (Operational); and 3) why are the dynamics of implementing the mainstream English curriculum at the school for the deaf the way they are? (philosophical). Five data-generation instruments were used namely: documents review, reflective activity, video observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The Natural Identity Framework guided this study leading to the generation of three categories: the top-down, bottom-up, and individual dynamics. Findings revealed that there is tension between the top-down (professional) and bottom-up (societal/school) dynamics, which affects curriculum implementation at the school. This begged for the recognition of individual dynamics which seek to understand the personal “who” questions. Such dynamics are neutral; and they harmonise the tension of the two giants by combining their strengths. The individual dynamics are realised after reflecting and critiquing current practices and experiences. Such help to meet individual needs and to improve practice. Consequently, the study recommends that teachers should always reflect and critique their practices in order to identify what works in their respective school contexts. As a contribution to the body of knowledge, this study proposes the innate dynamics implementation model which recognises the natural and inborn identity of both teachers and learners as the key driver of a successful curriculum implementation.
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    Integration of technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution: the context of primary schools in Pinetown District.
    (2022) Nene, Lindokuhle Gary.; Mpungose, Cedric Bheki.
    This research is a qualitative study that utilises a phenomenological research study, by means of 24 teachers at primary schools in South Africa, to fulfil its purpose. This study employs an interpretivist paradigm. This paradigm has been utilised because the study aims at exploring three missing levels of integration (constructive, unconstructive, and personal) during teaching and learning. The study intended to understand why teachers resist integration of technological resources. The methods of data generation employed are three online techniques owing to COVID-19: emailed reflective activity, Zoom focus-group discussion, and Skype one-to-one semi-structured interviews. These methods have been used for the purpose of sampling. Convenience sampling was utilised to select the most accessible participants. This study was framed by the curriculum origins concepts which originate from the curricular spider web (Van den Akker et al., 2009). This study utilises the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) as the theory that shapes the study. Data were analysed through guided analysis in which deductive and inductive methods were deployed. Lastly, ethical issues that are aligned with a qualitative study were considered. These include trustworthiness, dependability, confirmability, credibility, and transferability. This study employs this collection of research methods, the aim being to answer the following critical research questions: Research Questions: 1 .Which technological resources do teachers integrate into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution? 2. How do teachers integrate technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution? 3. What informs teachers in the fourth industrial revolution when integrating technological resources into the curriculum in the way they do? These research questions were underpinned by the following research objectives: Objectives of this Study: 1. To explore technological resources integrated into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution. 2. To explain the lessons to be learned when teachers integrate technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution. 3. To understand what informs the teachers’ integration of technological resources into the curriculum in the fourth industrial revolution. From the literature, three major concepts were generated by the research phenomena: constructive integration, unconstructive integration, and personal integration. These concepts were aligned with three categories of the curriculum, namely, the pragmatic, the horizontal, and the vertical. The literature and the findings of this study point to the actions of the majority of teachers, when integrating technological resources, being informed by constructive integration. Constructive integration occurs when teachers are compelled to follow a prescribed document such as a CAPS document and manuals. Thus, teachers are following a vertical curriculum. On Skype one-on-one semi-structured interviews teachers reflected on unconstructive integration. Such occurs when teachers’ actions are motivated by their social experience; this means that teachers share information. Such suggests that teachers are driven by the needs of horizontal curriculum. Online reflective activity also revealed that few teachers integrate technological resources, and their actions are informed by personal integration. This imbalance of integration leads to the poor integration of technological resources in which personal integration was singled out as the area for attention. Consequently, the main findings of this study indicate that teachers integrate technological resources into curriculum informed by three levels of integration: constructive, unconstructive and personal integration.
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    Psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic.
    (2022) Thilakdhari, Jayshree.; Jairam, Visvaranie.
    This research dissertation entitled ‘Psychosocial Experiences Of Foundation Phase Teachers In South Africa During The Covid-19 Pandemic’ presents an exploration and understanding of the lived psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. This phenomenological research study supports the value of experiences and was aimed at generating in-depth information to deeply understand the psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research study was conducted with a specific group of six foundation phase teachers from 3 provinces in South Africa, namely: KwaZulu-Natal; Gauteng and Western Cape. Purposive sampling was chosen alongside, availability and convenience of the research participants. This qualitative study is located within the interpretivist paradigm and uses phenomenology as the research methodology. This allowed the researcher to understand the psychosocial experiences of the foundation phase teachers in South Africa from the perspective of the research participants at a particular point in time: the Covid-19 pandemic. Multiple methods of generating data were used for this research study, which included: semi-structured interviews, collage inquiry and metaphor drawing. The data generated allowed the researcher to produce rich and thick information of the research participants. The Psychosocial Development Theory was used as a theoretical framework to offers lenses in exploring and understanding the psychosocial experiences of foundation phase teachers in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. Collage Portraiture was used as an analysis tool to support and enliven the analysis, and Vignettes were presented through themes and subthemes. The research findings indicated that foundation phase teachers in South Africa have knowledge and understandings of the Covid-19 pandemic, experience a variety of challenges during the Covid-19 pandemic, and need intervention strategies to support them during the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis of this research study revealed that the research participants negotiate their psychosocial experiences during the Covid-19 pandemic which leads to psychosocial development. A Psychosocial Development Research Intervention Model has been created for foundation phase teachers in South Africa, so they may develop psychosocially, work effectively during the crisis, minimize challenges, increase support and become resilient.
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    Educators’ experiences of corporal punishment: a case study of selected secondary schools in Eswatini.
    (2021) Magagula, Lindiwe Ncane.; Mnisi, Thoko Esther.
    Prompted by the escalating number of criminal cases against educators for severe corporal punishment and injury inflicted on learners, this study aimed to understand why educators persist with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment in Eswatini schools persists despite its proscription following Eswatini’s ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Guided by the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) as a theoretical framework, working within an interpretive paradigm, this qualitative study employed open-ended questionnaires administered to purposively selected educators from different types of schools in the four regions of the country. This was followed by two focus group discussions (FGDs) to validate and acquire an in-depth understanding of the data that were generated via the questionnaires. The data generated was used to understand why educators persist with corporal punishment. The main objectives were: to explore the experiences of educators relating to the use of corporal punishment to discipline learners in schools, to understand why educators persist with corporal punishment in schools despite its proscription, and to determine how educators maintain discipline and ensure an environment conducive to teaching and learning using less drastic disciplinary techniques. Following a thematic analysis of the data, the findings revealed that educators justify their persistent use of corporal punishment at three levels, namely social, political, and pedagogic levels. The findings further revealed that the educators have created their own amalgam of culturally influenced blended discipline to continue inflicting corporal punishment on learners. The study recommends that educator training institutions should follow the Education for Effective Classroom Management (ETCM) Model in educator training and include a module that specifically deals with issues of discipline. The institutions should also emphasise lifelong learning in educator service workshops to enable educators to meet the evolving demands of their profession.
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    Geography teachers’ integration of technology in the teaching of mapwork calculations in a secondary school in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Cele, Nkanyezi Hills.; Paideya, Vinodhani.
    The performance of learners in geography mapwork calculations is a major concern for both teachers and Departmental officials in South African secondary schools. Many proposals have and are being made concerning the improvement of learner attainment in geography examinations. However, the problem does not lie in tests and examinations but begins with how mapwork calculations are taught in the classroom. With the change of perceptions regarding teaching and learning in the 21st Century, it becomes necessary to view various options to teaching approaches in the classroom. The proliferation of perceptions about the integration of technology in teaching and learning raises concern about the teachers’ praxis in schools and the extent to which they integrate technology in the classroom. This study explores the integration of technology in the teaching of geography mapwork calculations at a secondary school, juxtaposing the perceptions of teachers in the research site with the perceptions of teachers within schools in the wider district. A concurrent triangulation of data generation methods was employed in the study. Qualitative methods were used to solicit data from participants, namely, qualitative questionnaire, focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis. Two conceptual frameworks, namely TPACK and UTAUT were used to guide the parameters of exploration in the study. The Social Capital theory was used as an analytical framework to provide an interpretation of the findings after data were analysed. This theory was applicable as it allowed people to work together and to access benefits from social relationships. Although the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic compelled teachers to find alternative ways of continuing their teaching online, despite the adverse conditions that exacerbated their teaching pressures, many geography teachers failed to explore new methods of teaching, using technology. The findings revealed that many teachers were not able to efficiently integrate technology into the teaching of mapwork calculations because of several factors that impacted on the integration in various ways, and many alternative methods employed by geography teachers presented with limitations. School policies, lack of support from internal structures in schools and external structures in the district, and lack of professional development, were found to be limiting factors towards the effective integration of technology to match the demands of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Recommendations were made to ensure that all stakeholders, namely geography teachers in secondary schools, the support structures in schools and the DBE officials, worked cooperatively to improve the performance of geography teachers. Suggestions included the implementation of professional development programmes and the provision of resource infrastructures to assist teachers in their integration of technology in teaching mapwork calculations. However, this research had some methodological limitations pertaining to the sample that was used as a case study. Nonetheless, it provided insight into the way technology integration was carried out in schools and highlighted hindrances towards the efficient implementation of integration programmes. A significant improvement in technology integration was evident at the research site due to support from the school’s personnel and technology infrastructure and the effective management of resources within the school. Mentoring of a newly appointed teacher by an experienced teacher was an effective form of professional development on a small scale. In view of the prevailing conditions at schools regarding technology integration, it is advisable that all stakeholders that partner with the DBE take interest in making schools the centres of powerful knowledge. The contribution from these partnerships will prepare the youth for employment as they complete their schooling career, equipped with knowledge and experiences to meet the demands of the 21st Century. By empowering geography learners with relevant technological skills, on par with the needs of the world of industry, these learners are likely to contribute significantly to the development of science and technology incorporating the geographic expertise that is necessary for future success in the working environment. The use of the Technology-Enhanced Geography Mentoring Model presented in this thesis will most likely facilitate communication among communities of practice and create a strong bond among the various structures in the bureaucracy. Having identified factors that impact on the integration of technology in Geography through the TePaSig Model, all the structures involved should work towards addressing the factors that prohibit the efficient integration of technology in the teaching of geography mapwork calculations. In so doing, geography learners will develop a solid grounding in mathematical geography and achieve the desired results, as they will be able to work independently using technological devices.
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    Izindlela namasu okufundisa ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi bebanga lesishiyagalombili esiZulwini ulimi lwasekhaya ezikoleni ezimbili ezisesiyingini sasePinetown.
    (2021) Mlondo, Zanele Witnes.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    ISIFINGQO Inhloso yalolu cwaningo ukubheka izindlela namasu okusetshenziswa othisha ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala esiZulwini uLimi lwasekhaya (ulimi lokuqala) kubafundi bebanga lesishiyagalombili. Lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuba kuphenduleke le mibuzongqangi emithathu: (i) Yiziphi izindlela namasu asetshenziswa othisha ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi bebanga lesishiyagalombili esiZulwini ulimi lwasekhaya ezikoleni ezimbili ezisesiYiningi sasePinetown? (ii) Othisha bebanga lesishiyagalombili bazisebenzisa kanjani izindlela namasu ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala ekufundiseni isiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya ezikoleni ezimbili ezisesiYingini sasePinetown? (iii) Kungani othisha bebanga lesishiyagalombili befundisa ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala esiZulwini ngendlela abakwenza ngayo? Ucwaningo lwenziwa ezikoleni ezimbili zamabanga aphezulu ezisesiYiningi sasePinetown. Kulezi zikole isiZulu sifundwa njengoLimi lokuQala (uLimi lwaseKhaya) kanti sifundwa abafundi abakhuluma isiZulu njengolimi lwasekhaya kanye nalabo abakhuluma ezinye izilimi zamaNguni njengesiXhosa neSiswati bese kuba khona nabakhuluma iSuthu. Kanti futhi lezi zikole zisendaweni enabantu abaxube zona lezi zilimi. Bahlanu othisha ababengabahlanganyeli kulolu cwaningo abafundisa isiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya ebangeni lesishiyagalombili. Lolu cwaningo luyikhwalithethivu ngaphansi kwepharadaymu i-constructivism. Luwucwaningo oluyi-case study. Ulwazi luqoqwe ngokusebenzisa izingxoxo ezisakuhleleka. Kusetshenziswe injulalwazi i-socio-constructivist kaVygotsky (1978) kanye nohlaka lwemicabango ekuhlaziyeni ulwazi olutholakele. Zintathu izindimba ezigqamayo olwazini olutholakele. Indikimba yokuqala iphathelene nokungaqondi kothisha mayelana nezindlela namasu ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi ababafundisa isifundo sesiZulu ebangeni lesishiyagalombili. Ngaphansi kwale ndikimba kunezindikimbana eziveza ukungaqeqesheki ngokwenele kothisha ekusebenziseni izindlela namasu ekufundiseni, isipiliyoni ekufundiseni isiZulu kanye nokushoda kwesisekelo esihle emakhonweni okufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala. Indikimba yesibili imayelana nokungazithuthukisi kothisha ekufundisweni kwala makhono womabili kubafundi abafunda isiZulu kuleli banga. Eyesithathu iveza ukuthi ukwentulela kolwazi lwezinjulalwazi kothisha kunomthelela ekutheni othisha abakuqondi ukusetshenziswa kwezindlela namasu okwahlukahlukene ekufundiseni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala. Ucwaningo lusonga ngokuphawula ukuthi ubuphansi bamazinga ekufundeni ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala kubafundi abafunda isiZulu esiyisifundo kwenziwa ukuthi, othisha abaqeqeshekile ngokwenele ekuqondeni izindlela namasu ekufundisweni kwala makhono. Ngaleyo ndlela kudingeka ukuba othisha bahlonyiswe ngolwazi olunzulu lwezinjulalwazi ukuze baziqonde izindlela ezahlukene zokuthuthukisa la makhono womabili kubafundi.
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    Ukunyamanisa izinganekwane ekuthuthukiseni ukukwazi ukufunda nokubhala emabangeni kusukela kwelokwamukela kuya kwelesithathu:ucwaningo lokufunda ezikoleni ezikhethiwe ezisesiyingini sasephayindane, KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu-Afrika.
    (2021) Cele, Rejoice Gugu Lindiwe.; Buthelezi, Makhosazana Thabisile.
    IQOQA Imfundo yaseNingizimu–Afrika ibalwa njengekhombisa ukuba namazinga aphansi ekungakwazini ukufunda nokubhala uma iqhathaniswa namanye amazwe asemhlabeni emabangeni ayisisekelo. Lolu cwaningo lwethula ulwazi engilutholile maqondana nokunyamanisa izinganekwane ekuthuthukiseni ukukwazi ukufunda okubhaliwe nokubhala emabangeni asukela kwelokwamukela kuya kwelesithathu. Lwenzelwe ezikoleni lapho kusetshenziswa khona ulimi lweBele ukufunda nokufundisa. Ulwazi engilutholile ngiluhlaziye ngokuthi ngisebenzise imicabangonzulu eyahlukene exhumene nalolu cwaningo nohlaka lwenjulalwazi yemfundosiguquli kaJack Mezirow. Ngakho kulolu cwaningo ngicacise ngomgudu wesifanekisomqondweni engisilandelile, isayensi yobukhona bolwazi, nenzululwazi yobukhona beqiniso. Ngisebenzise indlelakubuka yokuhlolisisa ngoba injongo yalolu cwaningo ukuletha ushintsho. Ngibe sengisebenzisa isifanekisomqondweni socwaningo lokuchazwa kwezizwe zomhlaba esincike ocwaningweni lobunjalo botho. Ngisebenze nothisha abangama-30 abafundisa ezikoleni ezisesiYingini sasePhayindane KwaZulu-Natali eNingizimu-Afrika befundisa amabanga kusukela kwelokwamukela kuya kwelesithathu. Lolu cwaningo luveze ukuthi othisha basantula indlelande kanye nolwazi lokufundisa amakilasi axube ngokwezilimi. Kuphinde kwavela ukuthi nakuba othisha benengcindezi yokuthi kumele basebenzise indlelande yokunyamanisa kodwa abanalo ulwazi mayelana nale ndlelande futhi abakutholi ukwesekwa okwanele nguMnyango WezeMfundo Emazingeni Aphansi yingakho bengenako ukuzethemba ngokuyisebenzisa. Izimpahlasiseko ezisetshenziswayo azinalo ulimi olwakha umqondo, ulimi olukhona lunobubha, izithombe zingongqimu abangahlobene nokubhaliwe futhi azihehi. Kuvelile nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezinganekwane kuqinisa imfundo yokukwazi ukufunda nokubhala kulawa mabanga. Engikuphakamisile ngukuthi kumele othisha besekwe ngokuthi bathuthukiswe ekufundiseni ngokusetshenziswa kwendlelayokunyamanisa kodwa ithwaxane nezinganekwane ukuze babe nokuzethemba uma beyisebenzisa. Indlelande yokusebenzisa izinganekwane ukufundisa ukukwazi ukufunda nokubhala kumele ithuthukiswe ngabacwaningi. Amatemu Anqala: Izinganekwane, indlelande, ukunyamanisa, ukukwazi ukufunda nokubhala.
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    Using the reading to learn methodology to teach isiZulu reading in a grade three class: a teacher’s self-study.
    (2023) Ntombela, Bongiwe.; Bertram, Carol Anne.; Kortjass, Makie.
    In this self-study research I examined my teaching of isiZulu home language reading in my Grade 3 class using the Reading to Learn methodology (R2L). Undertaking this self-study emanated from the concerns I had about my learners’ lack of participation in class, resulting in low reading development. Conducting this research assisted me to uncover my behavioural and emotional traits that created a negative atmosphere for learning. That kind of working environment influenced my daily practice and identity. Throughout the 27 years of my teaching I have been a foundation phase teacher who is very passionate about my work and knew myself as effective in developing learners’ knowledge and skills. I was keen to improve my professionalism, and so, after three years in a college of education I decided to pursue further studies. After many years of using the same teaching methods that were used by my teachers when I was a learner, I was introduced to the R2L methodology in 2012. I became one of the trainers training teachers who were keen to use the methodology. I used R2L for six years, perceiving myself as a productive teacher, as the development of my learners’ literacy skills was noticeable. I was happy with my teaching strategies until I moved to another school, where I experienced teaching challenges and therefore decided to explore my teaching practice through the self-study methodology. In this research I used multiple methods, one being life history, which allowed me to revisit my past, my attitudes, and my beliefs so that I could examine myself and change. As much as I was at the centre of the study and potentially an agent in the construction of knowledge, I also worked collaboratively with critical friends to demonstrate its validity and trustworthiness. I used the collage as an arts-based method to represent and reflect on my classroom practice. The collage was also used to stimulate reflection with critical friends and to agree on possible solutions to my problems, thereafter explaining my learnings that emerged from our discussions. Doing this self-study and reflecting on my professional practice has revealed the issues about myself that I was not aware of and released me from being confined by my past personal and professional experiences. I used journal entries to collect data by regularly documenting the events that took place during teaching and learning and recording my feelings about what happened. Another data collection method was video recordings that were done in the first three terms in 2021 to capture my teaching practice and my interaction with learners. I also used the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) which I administered as a baseline test at the beginning of 2021 and again towards the end of the same year to determine my learners’ reading progress. The findings of this study indicate that through reflecting on my practice and working with critical friends, my teaching and interaction with learners changed and my learners’ achievement demonstrated the significant improvement in reading fluency and comprehension over the year 2021. Iqoqa Kule ndima yokuzifundisa, ngiye ngahlola indlela engifundisa ngayo ukufunda isiZulu njengoLimi Lwasekhaya ebangeni lesi-3 ngisebensiza inqubo ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Reading to Learn (R2L). Nganquma ukwenza lokhu ngoba ngiphawula ukuthi abafundi babengahlanganyeli kahle ekilasini nokuthi ikhono labo lokufunda lalingathuthuki. Ngemuva kweminyaka eminingi ngifundisa ngendlela engafundiswa ngayo lapho nami ngisafunda isikole, ngonyake wezi-2012 ngaboniswa inqubo yokufundisa i-R2L futhi ngaqala ukuyisebenzisa. Kwaphela iminyaka eyisithupha ngisebensiza i-R2L, ngizibheka njengothisha ophumelelayo ngoba ikhono labafundi lokufunda nokubhala lalithuthuka. Ngaba omunye wabaqeqeshi, ngiqeqesha othisha ababezimisele ukufunda le ndlela yokufundisa. Ngenkathi sengishintsha isikole, ngabhekana nezinselele zokufundisa, ngakho nganquma ukufundisa ngisebenzisa inqubo yokuzifundisa. Ngasebenzisa izindlela ezihlukahlukene, enye yazo umlando wempilo yami, okwanginika ithuba lokubuye ngicabange ngendlela engafunda ngayo ukufunda ukuzifundela nokubhala. Ngasebenzisa izithombe njengendlela yobuciko yokubonisa lokho engangikwenza ekilasini nokuba ngihlole indlela engangenza ngayo. Ngaqala ukubhala phansi izinto ezazenzeka ekilasini ngabhala nendlela engangizizwa ngayo ngokwakwenzekile. Ngaqopha amavidiyo abonisa lapho ngifundisa nendlela engangisebenzisana ngayo nabafundi amathemu amathathu okuqala kowe-2021. Ekuqaleni kowe-2021, ngahlola indlela ababefunda ngayo ngisebenzisa indlela eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA), futhi lokhu ngakuphinda ngasekupheleni kwawo lowo nyaka ukuze ngihlole ukuthuthuka kwabafundi ekuzifundeleni. Okutholakele kulolu cwaningo kubonisa ukuthi ngokuhlola indlela engifundisa ngayo nokusebenza nabangani abangeluleka kahle, indlela engifundisa ngayo nengixhumana ngayo nabafundi ishintshile, kanti futhi abafundi bami benza kangcono kakhulu ekufundeni kahle nasekuqondeni ngonyaka we-2021. Lolu cwaningo nokubukisisa umsebenzi wami wokufundisa kwembule izinto ezithile ngami ebengingazazi, lungisize nokuba ngibone ukuthi angiphoqelekile ukwenza izinto ngendlela ebengilokhu ngizenza ngayo.