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Masters Degrees (Graduate School of Business and Leadership)

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    The effectiveness of the operation pay on time initiative on KwaZulu-Natal provincial departments.
    (2022) Mlamula, Nomzamo Ladyfair.; Tefera, Orthodox.
    SMMEs are continuously faced with the dilemma of late and non-payment of invoices with these delays becoming increasingly detrimental to the country's economy. The Provincial Government Departments are the major culprits of this unwelcome practice as they work against the Country's Economic Growth Strategy stipulated in the National Development Plan 2030 (NDP). Despite all procedures and efforts employed to assist departments in complying and making payments on time, the struggle continues for SMMEs. The KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Departments (KZNPDs) are dedicated to paying their service providers within the 30days payment interval and following the full terms of a contractual agreement. The KZN Department of Treasury developed an initiative called "Operation Pay on Time (OPOT)". The initiative is aimed to assist all KZNPDs to ensure payments are made on time to service providers. This is a case study research based on the KZN Department of Treasury’s initiative “OPOT”. Accordingly, the research study endeavoured to establish the effectiveness of the assistance provided to curb the issue of late or non-payment. The objective is to firstly establish the underlying factors of late or non-payment and evaluate the effectiveness of the OPOT initiative on the identified factors to stimulate efficiency in KZNPDs. The investigation comprised a mixed-method approach where information was gathered using a means of survey and interview sessions with descriptive and inferential statistics being utilized. Additionally, explanatory and thematic analyses were also used to describe and dissect subject information. The study participants comprised 10 senior managers and 60 finance officials in KZNPDs. Using a convenient sampling strategy, key informants and survey respondents were selected. The total number of observations (n) and proportion (%) in a variable was computed using the “tab” command of Stata 11. The graph box displaying the median and distribution of observations was created using the “graph box” command of Stata 11. Relationships between two categorical variables were investigated using Chi-Square analysis and results were reported with three parameters i.e., number of observations (n) Chi, and P-value. Examination of data disclosed that KZNPDs are struggling to ensure payments are made on time as a result of unresolved petty issues. The study revealed that the OPOT initiative is effective, however exhibiting some shortfalls of no proper systems or elements of controls in place. Furthermore, the study divulged that the OPOT initiative would be more effective when the factors of late or non-payment of invoices are filtered into any initiative or assistance provided and are post-effect rather than an after-effect initiative.
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    Investigating the implementation of the code of conduct for learners: a case study of Volksrust circuit schools.
    (2021) Mngomezulu, Dawn Nontuthuzelo.; Chummun, Bibi Zaheenah. ; Vilakazi, Blessing Fika Mlondi.
    The Code of conduct for learners (CCL) as a subject has been of interest among scholars around the world, this is understandable because the subject is still an enigma to many schools. A considerable amount of time in a normal school day is dedicated to behaviour management. Thus, an investigation into its implementation is being explored as the use of corporal punishment has been for a long time a quick fix to unbecoming behaviour that threatens to disturb the tranquillity necessary for a conducive learning and teaching environment. Since the abolishment of corporal punishment educators’ contact time with learners is characterised mainly by teaching and behavioural management, where the latter involves the management of the school to resolve. In cases where school management and teachers are found guilty of contravening the law by using corporal punishment, the disregard of use Code of conduct for learners (CCL) measures to deal with behaviour is primarily the cause. This study through a qualitative enquiry was employed to explore the understanding of the implementation processes and how leadership acumen at different levels affects the implementation thereof in schools. Therefore, Distributive Leadership, Learning Teams and Systemic Thinking are the theoretical underpinnings of the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the alignment of all leadership roles in the CCL implementation process and how far it is informed by the school's shared vision. Thematic analysis of the data was used to interpret the findings. The study found that there are critical information gaps across all leadership levels, these suggest that distributive leadership is essential in school management and that schools are complex institutions and they will benefit from employing systems thinking through well-planned learning teams interactions. The results of the study have the potential to draw attention to monitoring the implementation of CCL and reviewing the guidelines for consideration by SGB in implementing CCL. It may add to the body of knowledge that explores behaviour management in schools as a multidimensional and interconnected phenomenon from systems thinking perspective.
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    Transformation challenges faced by black South Africans in the construction sector within the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport.
    (2021) Mngomezulu, Simangele Nozipho.; Yalezo, Bhasela.
    In 2017, the KwaZulu Department of Transport conducted a spend analysis by population, using racial groups in the construction sector and the following was the conclusion; for the budget of R4 Billion the beneficiaries were 18% black Africans, 28% Indians, 15% white, 5% coloured, 8% other and 26% with no detail. Meanwhile population demographics indicates the Black South African population dominates KwaZulu-Natal by 87%, followed by the Indian/Asian population who are at 7,9%, white people account for 3,9% of the population, whereas coloured people account for only 1,2% (Statssa 2016). The data above is a clear indication of the lack of transformation in the construction sector specifically for the previously disadvantaged individuals which are Black South African. The KwaZulu Natal Department of Transport core functions are construction, upgrading, maintenance and control of the provincial road network. The research methodology used is mixed method, which encompasses both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative methodology used the purposive sampling and the quantitative used the probability sampling methods. The main findings of the research clearly indicated that there is lack transformation in the construction sector to support the previously disadvantaged individuals mainly Black South Africans, there is lack of adequate skills to perform in the sector, lack of financial resources and financial support from the financial institution, poor and lack of clear policy with regards to driving the agenda of economic transformation and lack of measurable contractor development programmes. The research recommendation is mainly the implementation of the transformation programmes with various interventions that will act as a nerve centre in bridging the gap in the transformation with clear targets which must be monitored and evaluated, supported by policies which will encompass all the stakeholders such as Construction Industry Development Board, National Treasury and all the institutions within the Built Environment. Mainly the purpose of the study is to to underpin the areas of improvement necessary in order for the KZN Department of Transport to bridge transformation gaps while attaining inclusive participation in the construction sector specifically for black South Africans.
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    The impact of remote working in Engen Petroleum Limited, South Africa, emanating from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (2022) Mohan, Sudhir.; Yalezo, Bhasela.
    This study examines the impact of remote working during the COVID 19 pandemic on employee retention and work-life balance at Engen Petroleum Limited South Africa. South Africa had the most reported cases in Africa resulting in the South African government declaring one of the strictest lockdowns in the world on 23 March 2020. Developments in cloud technology and globalisation have given rise to new flexible work arrangements known as remote working which became prevalent in many organizations, allowing employees to perform work away from the traditional office environment. Due to a lack of stable internet connectivity in some areas in South Africa, remote working was a challenge. Only 53 per cent of South African’s use the internet and people with the least connectivity live in poorer rural areas. To prevent the spread of the virus, many organizations implemented remote working. The advent of remote working in South Africa seriously impacted the informal sector of the economy. The study adopted a quantitative approach. Data was collected via an online survey that was distributed to employees of Engen Petroleum Limited South Africa that were working remotely. A total of 67 respondents were received from various departments within the organization. The data was analysed using statistical software to test the impact of remote working on the constructs of employee retention, work-life balance, productivity and job satisfaction. The study found that remote working had an overall positive impact on employee retention, work-life balance and job satisfaction with productivity either increasing or remaining unchanged. Management needs to invest in a substitute for “water cooler conversations” and similar social interactions that are lacking in the remote working environment. The study recommends that the building of trust between managers and employees will assist in determining the effectiveness of remote working. The manager team need to explore innovative ways of improving communication that will ensure that remote workers are included in the activities of the organization. The organization needs to have an awareness of the setup that remote workers have at their homes to provide the required human resource support.
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    Using Theory U and drama as a tool for the leadership development of drama students.
    (2021) Motimele, Napoleon.; Proches, Cecile Gerwel.
    The process of play production is one of the instruments that can be used to develop the leadership skills of drama students; however drama lecturers are not focusing on leadership development during the process of play production. Hierarchical leadership is no longer as effective in modern society; a collective leadership model is required to meet the challenges currently faced, as is evidenced by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies have highlighted play production as a vital instrument to develop students, for them to know the power of speaking, listening and expressing an idea. Studies have also indicated that drama is not just about being in the spotlight on stage and television, but is couched in teamwork, collaboration and community. This study sought to explore the field of leadership development through play production at Durban University of Technology (DUT). The objectives of the study were to investigate the similarities and differences in processes of play production and Theory U, to explore how these processes may complement each other as a modality for creative innovation, and to determine the potential contribution of utilising Theory U in developing leadership through play production. Qualitative research methodology was employed in the research. The study also drew on secondary data. Email interviews were conducted with 15 drama graduates who had entered leadership positions in academia, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and business. A purposive sampling technique was used to choose participants with requisite knowledge to be able to provide information related to the research topic, and thematic analysis was used to analyse their responses. The study found that Theory U promotes leadership development and if play production can be facilitated with the objectives of leadership training borne in mind by lecturers, the process can be enhanced so that there is inherent leadership training built into drama programmes. The leadership skills that students learn through play production include flexibility, teamwork, collaboration, creativity, time movement, problem solving, as well as addressing social and political matters. It is thus recommended that the Department of Drama and Production Studies at the Durban University of Technology should utilise Theory U in the play production process, aiming to formally develop the leadership skills of drama students.
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    Investigating the effectiveness of the project management system utilized by the eThekwini Water and Sanitation Unit to implement capital projects.
    (2022) Mathenjwa, Sabelo.; Tefera, Orthodox.
    Amongst many, water and sanitation services are essential services that municipalities are mandated to provide for their local communities in South Africa. These services are provided through infrastructure projects which are drawn from the National Development Plan (NDP) and Integrated Development Plan (IDP). They form an integral part in driving economic growth within the municipalities. The project management system (PMS) is one way of minimizing the risks of project failure during the implementation process. This research seeks to explore the PMS utilized by eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS) when implementing its capital projects. The study was aimed at exploring all inefficiencies associated with the PMS that is utilized by EWS when implementing capital projects. The qualitative research method alongside with the guided interview questionnaire were used to collect data for this study. The targeted population was employees who directly participate in project implementation and development of the policies and frameworks within the EWS, such as engineers, project managers, senior managers, and deputy heads. The data that was collected by means of interviews (physical and MS Teams) was thematically analysed using NVivo software. The emerged themes were used to develop findings and address the research objectives. The dual interview approach enabled efficient data collection under the COVID-19 conditions by allowing flexibility to have physical and virtual interviews. The key and significant findings and recommendations were drawn from the research results to address the research objectives. The research results revealed that females are still less represented in senior engineering positions at EWS. Most of the staff received a project management (PM) short course but none of them have a formal PM qualification or accreditation. It was found that when implementing projects at EWS, the legislative and financial requirements are given the highest attention while the PM requirements are lacking. The PMS was found to be lacking, no PM framework in place and the current organisational structure was found to be not ideal for successful projects implementation. On a brighter side, it was found that Multidisciplinary Project Team (MDPT) Business Process Map (BPM) led to improved projects delivery performance. There was a general finding regarding the lack of PM resources such qualified PM staff, funding/budget, skills, accountability, and leadership. The focus areas of improvement were recommended and the suitable project management framework for EWS was provided.
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    The impact of electrical energy theft on revenue collection at Eskom in KwaZulu-Natal Province.
    (2022) Matli, Nontobeko Samukelisiwe.; Chummun, Bibi Zaheenah.
    South Africa’s state-owned company, Eskom has been experiencing a decline in revenue and an increase in non-technical energy losses(NTL). Research has shown that most utilities including those from first-world countries are struggling with non-technical energy losses and have employed advanced technological solutions which are aimed at reducing losses . In this study, the researcher investigates the motives behind energy theft from Eskom KwaZulu-Natal Operating Unit electricity consumers and recommends solutions to eradicate or reduce the NTL . Increase revenue collection by reducing customers that engage in energy theft activities in Eskom KwaZulu-Natal Operating Unit. In the context of this study the perception that electricity is a right, refers to the phenomenon that all energy consumers must be supplied with exceptional power quality, irrespective of whether they are from affluent or less affluent communities. Nonprobability sampling technique was employed to select 60 participants that are directly supplied by Eskom or are Eskom employees based in KwaZulu-Natal. A quantitative research approach was used to investigate the probable cause of increasing non-technical energy losses, and an online survey questionnaire was distributed to the potential participants. The results were divided into three sections section A, section B, and section C. The results were analyzed utilizing the Chi-square test. The results suggest that the increase in non-technical energy losses is attributed to consumers having easy access to the Eskom infrastructure. Most socio-economic groups find electricity tariffs unaffordable and consequently decreasing Eskom’s ability to collect revenue. The result of this study ensuing past research has proven that technological solutions applied in isolation will not address the increasing non-technical losses in utilities. The increase in NTL experienced by Eskom affects the larger masses of South Africa as energy access has a direct correlation to GDP growth and the livelihoods of households. A collaborative approach is needed between Eskom and the government to address the rising pressures induced by NTL, the use of theoretical knowledge in new technologies, reviewing tariff structures, new policies to help reduce energy theft, and joint partnerships between Eskom and the community leaders and strengthening law enforcement.
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    An investigation into supply chain challenges at Durban North liquor distributors in eThekwini Metro, KwaZulu-Natal
    (2022) Mavundla, Sandile.; Yalezo, Bhasela.
    The liquor industry plays an important role in the South African economy. It contributes greatly towards job creation as well as economic growth. The fragmented structure of the industry provides an opportunity for firms of different sizes to play a role in the liquor supply chain. The large companies act as suppliers and manufacturers, while medium-sized companies are involved mainly in wholesale distribution, and the smaller companies act as retailers who connect with the final consumers. Although the industry is a strategic player in the economy, it is not without challenges. Some of the challenges include high operating costs due to statutory controls, yet margins are low. As a result, the industry is highly competitive. The aim of this research was to investigate supply chain challenges within the liquor industry, with an intention to propose solutions to unlock the industry’s full potential. A qualitative research design was adopted in this study, in which the researcher interviewed customers to understand the liquor supply chain challenges from their perspective. A research sample was drawn from a list of targeted participants who deal with the distributor Durban North Liquor Distributors. A purposive sampling strategy was used to draw a sample of clients from different wards around eThekwini Municipality. According to the research findings, the distributor provides an impeccable customer service. However, the challenges identified include lack of and inconsistent communication around nonavailability of products and anticipated time of delivery. The respondents also highlighted that the prevalence of receiving incorrect products that were not part of the initial order was high, which points to the lack of quality controls at Durban North Liquor Distributors. Due to a centralised distribution strategy, the respondents also felt that the distributor should improve on delivery plans. Recommendations include that the distributor should standardise the ordering system by using e-commerce platforms, and immediately communicate non-available items to customers, before sending orders for picking. In addition, there is a need to conduct quality control before dispatching orders. Finally, to address the delivery constraints caused by centralised distribution, the distributor should complement their fleet by procuring the transport services of third-party transport service providers, so as to improve geographical coverage, within customers’ operating hours.
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    The impact of agricultural skills training programmes delivered by Shukela Training Centre (Pty) Ltd.
    (2022) Madlala, Nolwazi Protasia.; Chummun, Bibi.
    This study is necessary to gain perspective on the impact of training offered by Shukela Training Centre (Pty) Ltd to its clients by analysing its credibility, effectiveness, and relevancy to the sugar industry members. Through all the factors, mentioned above, the quality, impact and relevance of training will be improved. The South African Sugar Industry stakeholders showed scepticism during the Development Committee Meeting held in 2022 with regards to supporting the approval of the Grant Development Account funds. The Grant Development Funds are funds held for transformation of small-scale and land reform growers’ association under the South African Sugar Association. The reason behind the fear is the belief that the funds are not utilised constructively with regards to the credibility of the meaning and content of the training. Based on the concerns from the committee there has been a request for a study to be pursued. The training must be driven more by the client's requirements to be more relevant. The quality, content, and relevance of the training will be focused on. This would result in the department supporting its financial expenses and making a profit in a long run. The important function of doing this study is to answer objectives such as establishing whether the respondents have attended the Agricultural Training at Shukela Training Centre (Pty) Ltd, to determine whether the training met the learners’ expectations, to explore ways in which the agricultural training offerings can be improved or enhanced at Shukela Training Centre (Pty) Ltd (STC) and to find an indication whether the credit-bearing courses are preferable to learners versus the current skills courses. The population for this study was done for all the sugarcane growers in the database, which is inclusive of the commercial, land reform inclusive of restitution projects namely trusts and CPAs, and small-scale growers. There would also be sugarcane stakeholders which are namely the millers such as Tongaat Hulett Sugar, Umfolozi Sugar Mill, Gledhow Sugar Company, RCL Sugar, UCL, Illovo Sugar and grower associations such as South African Cane Growers association and South African Farmers Development Association and the Department of Agriculture Land Reform and Rural Development. Microsoft forms were used to create the survey in order to be able to collect the customers or growers’ feedback. A total of twenty-eight surveys were collected from grower participants along with sugar industry stakeholders. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages was utilized to analyze all the data retrieved from the study. The coded results were first imputed on an Excel spreadsheet and then further transferred to the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) for analysis and all results were presented with the aid of frequency and percentage distribution tables. It was recommended that STC must provide innovative training based on and the -world agricultural situations. The course must be customized to meet the needs of the client and must be delivered by the client’s premises or by the training centre. The programmes must be designed with subject matter expertise. The training must include gamification and innovative techniques which must be applied to all the training uptakes being part of monitoring and the evaluation process. STC must also include community development as part of its portfolio so that the community can be assisted to start a small business and look for employment opportunities. This will assist in promoting self-sufficiency creating a future that is sustainable for the community. The study shows that the training programmes have a positive impact on the sugarcane grower performance and livelihood. However, it is suggested that a further cost benefit analysis can be done to further reveal the magnitude of the impact of these training skills training programmes offered by STC.
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    A study into prospective changes in consumer behaviour and buying patterns of graduate millennials due to COVID-19 in South Africa.
    (2021) Lakman, Ushir.; Pelser, Theunis Gert.
    The purpose this study is to determine the prospective changes in consumer behaviour and buying patterns of graduate millennials post COVID 19 in South Africa. To this end, a quantitative research project has been undertaken. Primary data was collected via a survey. Several theories were discussed such as consumer behaviour models, the buy decision process and dynamic consumer journey to gain a better understanding of the research that was conducted. Additionally, technology adoption models such as the TRA, TPB, TAM, ETAM and in particular MOCA is discusses as the study is seeking to determine behavioural movement toward online purchasing because of the pandemic. Research was conducted on the pandemic as well as the economy of South Africa as these are important consideration when conducting a study on consumer behaviour. This study seeks to contribute to the existing knowledge on technology adoption and consumer behaviour, particularly to determine whether the switch to online purchases during the pandemic is a permanent development or just as a result of consumers being forced to due to the pandemic. These findings may prove valuable to retailers and developers. It could provide a new lens with which to inform their marketing decision as well as development plans for the future.
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    Repurposing entrepreneurial recovery strategies employed by small, medium, and micro enterprises during the covid19 pandemic within eThekwini municipality.
    (2021) Bassia, Papadit.; Ngwenya, Tony Charles Simphiwe.
    The purpose of this study was to examine and evaluate SMMEs’ entrepreneurial recovery, and strategies they could adopt to sustain themselves during this COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a major shock in the world economy. Control measures to limit the spread of the virus have substantially weakened the economic systems in many countries, including South Africa. This pandemic has resulted in ‘lockdowns’, which have paralyzed entire sectors (travel, tourism, retail, production, and distribution chains) and global economic systems, leading to an economic crisis affecting millions of people and thousands of businesses (UNDP 2020). Small, Medium, and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) appear to be the most affected. Some analysts are predicting that around 60% of SMMEs may close before the crisis is over. The methodology chosen for this study was qualitative-oriented, and the associated research design acted as the research blueprint for data collection and strategy. The study selected different small businesses in the eThekwini municipality area in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Participating firms were small businesses that have experienced a significant impact from the current COVID-19 outbreak and measures. The sample size consisted of 15 participants selected from registered business entities. To avoid face-to-face contact and follow COVID-19 protocol and regulations, the research was mostly conducted with the business owner or management representative. The aim of this research is to identify the key findings for the situation of SMMEs, and their recovery strategies during this socioeconomic shock. The research findings highlight that majority of respondents in this study, had difficulties financing their companies, the monthly loss was experienced, and a huge drop was observed the respondents. The decline in their business activity and operation was also due to the regulatory closure of establishments, as a result of the Disaster Management Act. The research found that most SMMES have managed to put in place recovery strategies to survive and resist the economic downturn, but others also had to close their business – often permanently. The research also highlights the recommendations for further research.
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    Exploring the sustainable leadership of the top managers at Ermelo regional hospital.
    (2021) Bodibe, Oupa Phillip.; Kanyangale, MacDonald.
    Sustainability as a megatrend is influencing the leadership of different organizations in the world, including hospitals to maintain and improve the quality of their services. Despite calls in the literature for guidance on sustaining interventions regarding sustainability in hospitals, there is a dearth of research on leading and implementing sustainability in a hospital setting. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to examine the practices of Sustainable Leadership adopted by the Top Management Team at Ermelo Regional Hospital in Gert Sibande District in South Africa. Purposive sampling was utilized to identify and select 8 members of the top management team who participated in face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth, and audio-recorded interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurring patterns which depict practices that enable or impede practices of Sustainable Leadership by members of the Top Management Team. The study’s limitation is that it only included a small sample which makes it not possible to generalize the findings. The key results of this exploratory study are that Ermelo Regional Hospital’s Top Management has got various practices of Sustainable Leadership that they use. These include staff development through training, encouraging leaders at all levels to be part of the organizational effort towards sustainability, flexible working and favourable labour relations which creates a sense of shared responsibility. However, succession planning was found to be influenced by nepotism and corruption while staff management is mostly crippled by the prevalence of autocratic leadership. The need for engaging the employees often through regular meetings to provide up-dates and share hospital performance were also emphasized as critical as they result in a work setting where effective communication becomes the norm and challenges are timeously addressed. The study concludes that while Ermelo Regional Hospital’s Top Management Team is trying in terms of skill development, the leadership style is less supportive of inclusive, sustainabilityrelated practices. Furthermore, the pillars of sustainability such as the environment and community are not given enough attention by the Ermelo Regional Hospital leaders, which adds challenges to practice effective Sustainable Leadership in a hospital setting. A few recommendations are provided as well as potential research areas.
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    Enhancing functionality of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of education during the corona virus pandemic using the viable system model.
    (2022) Cele, Thanduxolo Justice Casper.; Mutambara, Emmanuel.
    Organisational functionality is critical for ensuring that the organisation remain focussed in ensuring its performance mandate especially in times of disruption such as the coronavirus pandemic, natural disasters caused by floods, earthquakes, and civil unrest. In times of disruption, “organisation could enhance functionality by applying the Viable System Model. The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education (KZNDOE), experienced functionality related challenges during the corona virus pandemic which hindered the delivery of teaching and learning across most schools. The aim of the study was therefore to enhance the functionality of the department using the VSM. The target population comprised 80 senior managers and school principals. The study employed an exploratory research design gathering data from 14 participants who were purposively selected. Data was collected by interviewing the 14 participants. Data was analysed thematically using the NVivo 12 model. The study revealed that KZNDOE was not ready to deal with the complexity presented by the coronavirus pandemic ultimately hindering the performance of teaching and learning throughout KwaZulu-Natal schools. The pandemic was a complex emergence which the department could not handle using its simplistic functional organisational structure. Despite the challenges, the department made progressive responses that include closure of schools, establishing new structures, introducing the virtual office, speeding the procurement process of basic resources such as personal protective equipment (PPEs), and trimming the curriculum. The study however indicated that the closure of the core function of teaching was a major blow as teaching and learning needed to continue despite the pandemic to allow natural progression of learning from one grade to another. The study also revealed that the major challenges faced by the department include the shortened curriculum, implementing the social enrichment programmes, inadequate classroom space for rotational classes, inadequate funding and increase in the learning gap between quintile 4, 5 schools and quintiles 1, 2, and 3. To address the challenges, the focus of the department was on increasing funding to procure critical resources. To achieve performance, the study revealed that critical role players such as the department of health, education, senior managers, school principals, educators and learners were to play a role. The study recommended the need to review the functional structure which was last reviewed in 2011 to one that is adaptive in responding to the complex environment. The review would include the change of structure by creating new structures within the department that can deal with the pandemic. Thus, the study recommended a restructure to viable, and adaptive structure that seeks to enhance functionality and performance anchored in an effective coronavirus pandemic communication network, empowerment structures for educators, structures to provide for remote learning and prelearning materials. The study however recommended that a similar study could be conducted in other provinces to have a balanced view before making national inferences.
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    Evaluation of the intrapreneurship orientation in a pharmaceutical manufacturing company in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Chetty, Rangini.; Ngwenya, Tony Charles Simphiwe.
    The pharmaceutical industry in South Africa is considered a knowledge-intensive sector, with sophisticated consumers, world-class clinical skills, excellent infrastructure, and an established policy and regulatory environment. However, recent global business disruptions, including the COVID-19 pandemic, with its ensuing socio-economic sequelae, have highlighted the importance of an innovation or intrapreneurship orientation in pharmaceutical companies, where agility and responsiveness is pivotal - not just for surviving, but also thriving and creating value. It is in this context that intrapreneurship can be leveraged to spur innovation, augment business renewal, enhance organisational performance and ensure sustainability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the nature and extent of the intrapreneurship orientation of the company’s managerial employees, to identify the strengths and weaknesses that influence intrapreneurship orientation at the company, to investigate the relationship between the company’s intrapreneurship orientation and organisational culture, and finally to explore strategies to augment the intrapreneurship orientation of the company’s managers. This sequential mixed methods explanatory study evaluated the nature and extent of intrapreneurship orientation of a pharmaceutical manufacturing company located in KwaZulu-Natal, using a sample of 55 managers, employing a self-administered online questionnaire for the quantitative research phase, and a focus group discussion of 10 managers for the qualitative research phase. The findings revealed a suboptimal intrapreneurship orientation, with weaknesses revolving around the management support, organisational structure and culture, as well as the availability and orchestration of resources. The organisation’s strengths were underpinned by the proactiveness and learning orientation of its managerial employees. Recommendations to the organisation include the development of a structure for innovation and intrapreneurship, the performance of a cultural survey as a first step in establishing a culture of innovation, collaboration and continuous learning, and the development and implementation of an innovation balanced scorecard to manage innovation-related performance.
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    Strategic leadership and change management imperatives in a volatile era: a case study of Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital.
    (2022) Zungu, Knowledge Lungisani.; Ngwenya, Tony Charles Simphiwe.
    The South African public healthcare system plays a critical role in rendering care to the majority of the population. Public healthcare is one of the democratic government’s key priorities, reflected in the constitutional commitment to providing accessible and quality healthcare efficiently and sustainably to all citizens. To realise this commitment, leadership and management of public healthcare facilities play a significant role as they can influence the success or failure of delivering quality and efficient healthcare services. Primarily because it is the responsibility of leaders to render healthcare sector demands efficiently and effectively. Strategic leadership is one of the effective tools for efficient management. Its effect on managing complexities, shocks, and various forms of turbulence and its efficiency is well documented in the literature. As a country heavily burdened by socio-economic development challenges such as the increasing poverty and unemployment rate, the number of people relying on public healthcare continually increases. With increasing healthcare demands and the burden of disease, public hospitals and clinics as institutions operate in challenging, complex and dynamic environments. Additional to an already turbulent environment prone to change and instability, public healthcare institutions in South Africa operate under the globally experienced volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous business environment. Therefore, the assessment of leadership styles, practices, and their impact is of performance in of great importance. Given such a state, the literature points to the importance of strategic leadership being a vital requirement for healthcare management and leadership. The wide range of strategic leadership competencies enables leaders to adapt continuously to change and the fast speed of innovation. This is because strategic leaders are visionary; they have the capacity to innovatively and creatively navigate organisations through volatility to improve performance. This study aimed to investigate the role of strategic leadership and change management at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital. Through a qualitative inquiry, an interview schedule of sixteen questions was administered to fifteen participants in leadership positions within the hospital. Questions probed to unearth the strategic activities and successfully captured experiences and viewpoints on the impact of strategic leadership in managing change and the hospital's performance in this era of unpredictable constant change. The findings of this study pointed out that Mshiyeni hospital operates in a complex and demanding environment with constrained human and financial resources. The hospital tackles extensive responsibilities of regional and district hospital services in an overly populated location dominated by socio-economically challenged communities. Results further showed that keeping the hospital operational at a satisfactory level has been achieved through strategic leadership approaches designed and actioned by the leaders at the hospital level. As access and delivery of quality healthcare is a constitutional mandate in SA, the commitment to deliver efficient and effective healthcare service is cited as one of the main priority objectives of the department of health. However, the financial provisions for public healthcare facilities seem not to match the service demands in a manner that can enable public hospitals to deliver their service sufficiently. It is recommended that future research probe into this matter at an executive level within the health department. This recommendation will aid in getting an idea of how the health department idealises its public institutions to execute its services in the context of the existing constrained resources state.
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    The investigation of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the University of KwaZulu-Natal Foundation’s fundraising efforts.
    (2022) Kokoropo, Tebelo.; Luthuli, Nomkhosi Hlengiwe.
    The study investigates the extent to which the Covid-19 pandemic impacted the fundraising efforts of the UKZN Foundation. The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has made a devastating impact on the lives of many people and the economies of many countries. The pandemic affected a lot of sectors in the economy including the higher education sector. The University of Kwazulu-Natal was under pressure to ensure they provide the required tools to carry out online learning and teaching. The UKZN Foundation, which remains the fundraising arm of the University of Kwazulu-Natal, had a responsibility to appeal to both existing and potential donors to support the university in light of the pandemic and the demands that came with it. The UKZN Foundation had to formulate strategies and plans to ensure they alleviate the pressure from the university by appealing for more funds. The outbreak of the pandemic affected the state funding for universities substantially, the education department had to reallocate funds so to prioritize challenges brought about by the outbreak of the pandemic. The outbreak caused universities to undergo a serious financial strain. Universities had to review their budgets so to ensure they remain afloat and can carry their day-to-day costs. Due to financial pressures experienced by the UKZN in light of the pandemic, thirdstream income became a priority to support university needs. Despite organizations holding back, as far as pledging is concerned due to Covid-19, the UKZN Foundation is still required to appeal, and source funds to support the university. This study’s objectives centred around establishing whether the UKZN foundation was able to achieve its income and donor targets in light of the Covid-19 pandemic; exploring the extent to which the foundation has been impacted in meeting project demands; investigating whether the foundation’s stakeholders and relationship management have been affected by the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, and establishing if the foundation was able to remain in alignment with the requirements of the UKZN strategy in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. A qualitative research method was adopted for this study and interviews were conducted with external donors, UKZN foundation management staff, and other UKZN employees. The findings from the study indicate that despite the economic pressure brought about by the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic at the University of Kwazulu-Natal, the UKZN Foundation was able to raise a substantial amount of funds to support the university to provide effective remote teaching and learning in the light of the pandemic. This study shows that the pandemic brought a lot of challenges to the academic sector and that the University of Kwazulu-Natal endured a lot of financial pressure. Despite the economic pressures, the UKZN Foundation was able to appeal to donors to support the University of Kwazulu-Natal. The UKZN Foundation was instrumental in supporting the university with its remote learning and teaching funding requirements.
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    The impact of the acceleration of innovation strategies in service delivery performance within the Fourth Industrial Revolution era: a case of a provincial public institution.
    (2022) Mzileni, Lonwabo.; Ngwenya, Tony Charles Simphiwe.
    The world is currently in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, characterised by fast-advancing digital technologies. Digital technologies such as the internet of things, artificial intelligence, robotics, autonomation, 3D printing, cloud computing, nanotechnology, and many other similar technologies, directly and indirectly affect the way of life. This direct and indirect effect is prolificated by the ability of digital technologies to influence communication, information, knowledge and daily operations in all aspects of life at home, in society and at the workplace level. The growth or advances of digital technologies is said to be at an unprecedented speed. It comes with rapid changes that have made the 21st-century global economy and environment volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous. This complex nature of the modern environment presents uncertainties, and amid it, organisations must deal with the changes and continue to operate efficiently and effectively. As a result, there has been an observed paradigm shift in public service delivery and administration where governments across the world utilise information and communication technology, digital technologies and the Internet to improve operations and service delivery. For instance, innovation strategies such as e-Government exemplify the adoption and utilisation of technologies in state services. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the accelerating innovation strategies in service delivery within this Fourth Industrial Revolution era. A qualitative approach to best respond to the research questions and used purposive sampling to identify the most relevant participants. The population of this study was KwaZulu Natal Treasury employees and study size and sample was eight staff members from the IT and Systems Units within Treasury. Data was collected through open-ended semi-structured interviews. The collected data was reviewed, synthesised and interpreted through thematic analysis. A rigorous analysis of primary data led to the findings of unequal levels of innovation within Treasury. Implying that some units or departments invest in innovations more than others. Further findings showed that the adopted innovations proved to be beneficial in terms of improving service delivery. Leading to the conclusion that taking full advantage of innovation technologies and systems could be advantageous for the department. Additionally, this study found that adopting 4IR technologies, digital services, ICT infrastructure, and innovation strategies relies on budget sufficiency. Therefore, accelerating innovation systems and processes in service delivery requires the department, its leaders, and management to embrace and invest in innovation.
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    Exploring the financial knowledge culture and behaviour of millennial and generation Z’s: a case study of employees at Astel Systems (Pty) Ltd.
    (2023) Chetty, Thalia Fae.; Ngwenya, Tony.
    Millennials are currently the largest generational cohort in many countries, and Generation Z are fast approaching. The financial wellbeing of these cohorts is imperative to global financial success and wellbeing. This study was conducted with the aim of exploring the financial habits and knowledge of two generational cohorts by assessing the personal savings and investment behaviours. Further, the study aimed to analyse the spending habits and financial goals of millennials and GenZ. Lastly, the study was implored to determine what strategy could be undertaken to improve the spending and savings habits, and the financial knowledge possessed by these two generations. The most appropriate research methodology to adopt was a qualitative approach, and employed 12 respondents, split equally between the two generational cohorts. Semi structured interviews were conducted with each respondent. By using a thematic approach to the study, significant themes presented themselves, aiding to meet the research objectives. Prevalent themes that emerged included saving patterns and budgeting, investment views and practices, the influence of financial technology and digitisation on saving behaviour, spending habits, financial well- being aspirations and the influences on financial acumen. The findings have found that both cohorts exercise savings habits at either the beginning or the end of the month, however more millennials have a strict savings plan as compared to GenZ. The responses also highlighted that both generational cohorts place emphasis on home ownership in affluent areas. 83% of respondents are risk adverse and choose to hold safer rather risky investments. The study also concluded that millennials are more financially committed than GenZ and have accumulated debt at a younger age in terms of a bond or vehicle finance. Several recommendations were made, including make use of a strict monthly budget, diversifying investment portfolios with the assistance of financial advisors, and Government intervention to reduce interest rates and offer housing subsidies to younger generational cohorts that wish to purchase homes.