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Masters Degrees (Languages and Arts Education)

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    Learners' understandings and reflections of place and belonging in Sophiatown: explorations in a grade 11 English classroom.
    (2022) Mungal, Denosha.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    Issues of place and belonging are major themes in the play, Sophiatown, and are issues that play a significant role in the lives of grade 11 learners. The history-based play, Sophiatown, is studied across many South African secondary schools and was found to be suitable for this study which aimed to explore grade 11 learners’ understandings and reflections of place and belonging in the play, Sophiatown, and in their own lives. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is two-pronged, using the theories of Place Attachment and Place-Belongingness. This study used a qualitative case study within an interpretivist paradigm and employed thematic analysis. The sample consisted of 102 grade 11 learners from a secondary school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In analysing the text and learners’ responses from a diary entry, Venn diagram, an open-ended questionnaire and focus group interviews, six findings emerged. The overall findings may be categorised as follows: grade 11 learners ‘deep reflections and understandings of place and belonging; the importance of place and belonging for grade 11 learners; grade 11 learners’ astute reflections of their communities; recognition of Sophiatown as a paradox; recognition of Sophiatown as a place of belonging; insightful comparisons between place and belonging in learners’ communities and Sophiatown. Although place and belonging remain well researched in the field of psychology, it was found to be lacking in the field of education. There is a great deal of literature focusing on Sophiatown, the place, and its history, but there appears to be limited literature available regarding the play, Sophiatown, and even less literature available exploring issues of place and belonging in the play. Thus, this study aimed to address these gaps. Seeing that issues of place and belonging play a significant role in the lives of learners and remain major themes in the play, Sophiatown, it is important that these areas are focused on while studying the text and that learners are given given the chance to draw on their own lives as this will allow valuable information to be communicated in the literature classroom.
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    Using literary texts to teach for social justice in a primary school language classroom.
    (2022) Modise, Keneiloe Rosetta.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    The purpose of this study was to understand how teachers use literary texts in primary school language classrooms to teach for social justice. It worked with teachers from two primary schools in the Zululand district - one school is an independent school, and the other a government school. Teachers who participated were English-language teachers in the intermediate and senior phases. This study made use of a qualitative approach and data was generated through document reviews, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. There were many socio-economic challenges identified by the teachers, many of which affect teaching and learning. Data generated from this research does not necessarily implicate these socio-economic challenges, nor the curriculum. Rather, it shines a spotlight on the challenge of teaching for social justice especially in Home Language English classrooms to non-native speakers of English. This is exacerbated by a seeming lack of interest in reading by learners, which makes the teaching of literary texts, never mind the engagement with social justice issues, a mammoth task. While teachers in this study have not been explicit in their teaching for social justice, they still regarded it as fundamental in examining the historical and present systems of privilege and domination, since they have direct implications not only on the locations of their schools, but the socio-economic challenges of the communities in which they work. Foremost in addressing the challenges that hinder foregrounding social justice in language classrooms is providing teachers with the resources necessary to teach literary texts. These would include, but not be limited to, a library, free access to books, and time for reading in the classroom. The study recommends more teachers be offered workshops on how to engage learners’ critical thinking when studying literary texts. Furthermore, this study advocates for a collaborative project for stakeholders, especially language teachers, to communicate and interact in advancing an emancipatory education that makes teaching for social justice a practical reality. It is hoped that research of this kind can help teachers and educational scholars move from a theorised understanding of social justice in education to a more practical application of it in primary school language classrooms.
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    Grade 11 learners’ engagement with representations of violence in Athol Fugard’s novel, Tsotsi.
    (2021) Oldfield, Bronwyn Mary.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    Literature such as Tsotsi has been introduced in public schools in South Africa, with the intention to provide learners with literature with which they are able to relate. However, few studies have been conducted to establish how the learners view the representations of violence within these novels, whether they are able to identify these violent acts within their own lives and whether the violence they have experienced has affected their perceptions of violence within these novels and their lives. This study sets out to answer these questions using a critical paradigm, qualitative approach, and a single case study of 76 grade 11 learners in a school in Newlands East, Durban. This study was anchored in the ideologies of Freire’s critical pedagogy which includes constructing knowledge through the facilitation of meaningful discourse on the power relations and social justice issues in society. In order to generate data for this study, three data generation methods were used which includes an open-ended questionnaire, a written task, and a visual data task, allowing the learners the opportunity to express themselves fully, while ensuring triangulation takes place. The data was then collated and through the structures of the thematic data analysis method, the data was thematically grouped and interpreted. The data indicated that many learners have been exposed to various types of violence, with physical violence being the most easily identified and commonly experienced of all. Sexual violence was commonly identified but seldom experienced by the learners. Learners were also able to identify types of violence found within the novel which included physical, emotional, and sexual violence, as well as abuse and crime. This study emphasises the impact that representations of violence in communities have on the learning and teaching of literature and recognises the importance of teaching literature by understanding learners’ backgrounds and through the ideologies of social justice.
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    An exploration of my teaching practices when teaching writing to high school learners: a novice teachers’ self-study.
    (2021) Brijmohun, Seshen.; Campbell, Bridget.
    The purpose of this study was to explore my experiences of teaching and learning of writing, as a novice teacher. My research questions were: What are my learning experiences of writing? What are my teaching experiences of writing? and How can knowing my experiences of writing enhance my teaching of writing? My study was guided by three key concepts, which are Socioculturalism, Pedagogy, and Culturally Responsive Teaching. Pertinent literature which underpinned this study, included the nature of being a life-long learner, the preparedness of novice teachers, how writing affects confidence and the teaching of writing. Taking a self-study approach enabled me to compose and analyse my experiences of teaching and learning of writing to become cognisant of the constructive and undesirable influences on my Pedagogy, with the hope of building a more effective, and meaningful Pedagogy. This methodology was apt for my study as I delved into my own experiences of learning, how I was taught writing and my own teaching of writing. In doing so was critical of how I was taught writing as well as my past and current teaching practices. I acknowledged that there is room for improvement and worked with critical friends to alter my practices. Data generation strategies stemmed from reflective practice and were inclusive of narrative journaling, lesson reflections, source document retrieval and critical friend conversations and peer reviews. As the study progressed, I explored various ways in which to improve my teaching of writing from what I had learned through revisiting and adjusting my teaching practices. Learning from my past and present experiences, enabled me to adapt my current teaching practices and to explore ways of being more responsive to my learners. The themes that emerged, through thematic analysis, are parental involvement, a supportive teaching and learning environment, pedagogic practices, and the use of teaching resources when teaching writing. This self-study journey has not just made me an improved teacher of writing, but more culturally relevant teacher overall. Being a meaningful teacher denotes that I need to be au fait with my learners, their lived experiences and the environments with which they are familiar, as well as how to communicate with them within a setting of supportiveness. New challenges mean fresh possibilities will continually arise and I will never stop questioning and trying to improve upon my Pedagogy.
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    siSwati language as a subject in senior secondary schools in Eswatini: learners’ experiences in two selected schools in the Lubombo region.
    (2021) Nxumalo, Lungile Mathamane.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    The study explored the experiences of learners on learning siSwati language as a subject in senior secondary schools in the Lubombo region of Eswatini. It was based on the notion that for many years in the education system of Eswatini, focus has been on English as an important subject while siSwati as a subject was neglected. However, now, there has been a shift of emphasis from English to both English and siSwati as core subjects and siSwati has been declared as a core subject together with Mathematics, Science subjects and English language at senior secondary school level. The study was based on the following research questions: What are the learners’ experiences of learning siSwati as a subject at two senior secondary schools in the Lubombo region of Eswatini? How are the learners affected by their experiences in learning siSwati as a subject at two senior secondary schools in the Lubombo region of Eswatini? Why do the learners experience learning of siSwati as a subject in the way they do in two senior secondary schools in the Lubombo region of Eswatini? The study adopted the interpretive paradigm where the qualitative approach was used. It utilised questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions as data gathering tools. Data were gathered from twenty (20) learners in two schools that were randomly selected in the Lubombo region of Eswatini. Data were analysed using content analysis. The findings revealed that learners liked siSwati as a subject because it promotes their culture as Emaswati, however, there is still not much that they benefit by learning and passing siSwati at senior secondary school apart from the fact that learning it helps them promote it as their mother tongue and that they learn a lot about their culture. The findings also revealed that learners enjoyed and understood siSwati concepts better if they do role-plays, debates, hot sits, class discussions, trips to Eswatini museums and cultural villages. Another finding was that despite that siSwati is now a core subject learners are still punished for speaking it at school. The study recommended that Language policy makers should make a follow up on the policy made to ensure that what is stipulated in that policy is implemented. They should make sure that learners are not punished for speaking in siSwati in schools because the policy stipulates that they are free to do so as siSwati has been made the official language together with English. The study further recommends that teachers should find better methods of teaching grammar so that learners enjoy grammar lessons as much as they enjoy doing the other components in the language. Teachers of siSwati should also make sure that in what they say or do, they should not seem to favour English language as a subject over siSwati.
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    Ukufundiswa kohlelo lolimi kubafundi bebangale 10 abenza isiZulu ulimi lokuqala lokwengeza ezikoleni ezintathu zase-Richards Bay.
    (2021) Mbata Nokuthula Ntombenhle.; Ntshangase, Sicelo Ziphozonke.
    Lolu cwaningo lugxile ekubhekeni ukufundiswa kohlelo lolimi kubafundi bebanga le-10 abenza isiZulu uLimi Lokuqala Lokwengeza ezikoleni ezintathu zase-Richards Bay. Lolu cwaningo lwesimo olusebenzise ipharadymu yomhumusho, kusetshenziswa indlela yokuqoka abahlanganyeli ngenhloso, okuyibona abanganikeza imininingwane ethembekile yesimo esicwaningwayo. Lolu cwaningo lwenziwe ezikoleni ezintathu zase-Richards-Bay. Lolu cwaningo lusebenzise amathuluzi amathathu okuqoqa ulwazi okuyizingxoxo ezisakuhleleka, izingxoxo zamaqembu kanye nokuhlaziya amadokhumenti. Ucwaningo luphinde lwasebenzisa izindlela zocwaningo lobunjalo besimo ukuhlaziya ulwazi olutholakele. Imiphumela yocwaningo ihlaziywe kusetshenziswa injulalwazi i-Socio-constructivism kaVygotsky (1978). Imiphumela yocwaningo ikuvezile ukuthi othisha nakuba bezisebenzisa izindlela ezahlukene zokufundisa, kusekhona okushodayo futhi bayadinga ukulekelelwa wuMnyango wezeMfundo ngoba iningi labo abaqeqeshekile kahle emaswini okufundisa uhlelo nolimi esiZulwini uLimi Lokuqala Lokwengeza. Imiphumela yocwaningo iphinde yaveza ukuthi othisha babhekene nenkinga yokungabi bikho kwezinsizakusebenza zokufundisa ulimi lokuqala lokwengeza. Othisha bolimi lwesiZulu babhekene nenkinga yomthwalo omningi maqondana nalolu limi. Othisha babuye babhekane nenkinga yokuthi abafundi banokusibukela phansi isiZulu ngenxa yomthelela wolimi lwesiNgisi esiqhakanjiswa kakhulu ezikoleni nasemakhaya. Abafundi abasebangeni le-10 abanalo ulwazi oluyisisekelo lwesiZulu ngenxa yokuthi abasifundanga isiZulu emabangeni aphansi. Abafundi babhekene nenkinga yokungakwazi ukuphimisa imisindo ngendlela efanele.
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    Using J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace to teach and learn about gender and racial violence in a South African language classroom.
    (2020) Hadebe, Cynthia Zanele.; Nyika, Nicholus.
    South Africa has taken strides towards a democratic education system, however, gender and racial violence attributed to past inequalities and racial segregation persists in schools. The education system has seemingly failed in protecting learners and preventing the prevalence of violence in schools. To eradicate such violence, traces of the past need to be explored in contemporary South Africa. This includes the exploration of the Bantu Education which governed and controlled the type of education black people had access to. A novel like Disgrace (Coetzee,1999) is perfect in exploring past and present South African language classrooms, while also ensuring that learners are equipped with the right skills to identify the violence both in schools and societies through the incorporation of critical race theory and critical pedagogy. Analysing Disgrace (1999) in language classrooms with the aim of identifying examples of gender and racial violence can ensure that learners are well equipped to protect themselves and those around them, while also learning valuable skills attainable from creative writing through class discussions.
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    Exploring strategies of teaching poetry to English Second Language (ESL) learners in grade 12.
    (2020) Hlabisa, Mlungisi Vusumuzi.; Sheik, Ayub.
    This study is an exploration of strategies that are of utility to ESL teachers to teach poetry in a South African context. It advocates a learner-centered approach to teaching and learning and closely aligns with the Department of Education’s curriculum requirements. Given the paucity of poetic strategies available to teachers in rural, ESL contexts as evidenced in such studies as Lim and Omar (2007), El-Hindi (2008), Panavelil (2011), Juhlin (2018) amongst others, this study seeks to explore and provide enabling, unorthodox and innovative strategies that teachers can use to teach poetry in their ESL classrooms given the resource poverty typical to this demographic. Maake (2017) points out that there is a decline in the teaching of poetry in the ESL classrooms in South Africa, even though the CAPS document (2011) clearly states that poetry should be taught like any other literary genre in the FET phase. The decline may be attributed to a number of factors, some of which are insufficient resources, negative attitudes towards poetry, overcrowded classes, language barriers, and inadequately trained teachers. This desktop study is consequently a review of methods the ESL teacher may have recourse to, given the contextual dynamics manifest in the South African ESL classroom. Practical Criticism informs the approach used in this study. The rationale for this choice is that ESL teachers consciously or unconsciously use some of the tenets of practical criticism in their classroom. This study therefore seeks to build upon this to add increased analytical rigor and expand the capacity for critical analysis. This study uses desktop methodologies to advance its thesis. Due to the covid-19 pandemic, online peer reviewed articles, e-books and personal reflection are mostly utilized to inform this study. This study is embedded in the critical paradigm, acknowledges its own subjectivity and seeks to empower people. This study also uses Vygotsky’s theory of sociocultural learning, the central thesis of which is that knowledge is socially constructed. The theory is relevant in this study because it helps the teacher understand how learners acquire knowledge in an ESL context. The teacher understands his/her role as a facilitator of knowledge and not as the sole source of information. The sociocultural theory of learning insists on a learner-centered approach to teaching and learning. It also promotes the contextualization of knowledge to the learners’ understanding of their own world. This theory introduces the idea of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) as a range between what learners can do (the known) and what they can do with the assistance of a teacher (the unknown). Poetry in the ESL class is perceived as a necessary ordeal for examination purposes. This study contends that the intrinsic joy and the discovery of new knowledge as well as the aesthetic appreciation of poetry is what ESL teaching and learning of poetry should be foregrounding. The portrayal of poetry as an elitist genre has taken away left our learners with negative attitudes and experiences of poetry. Therefore, this study, by advocating different strategies of teaching poetry, seeks to reimagine poetry and rekindle interest in learners. One of the key findings of this research is the use of cognitive reading strategies as the tools to teach poetry in ESL classes. Brumfit (1980) argues that reading is a very complex activity as it is composed of “perceptual, linguistic and cognitive abilities”. Cognitive reading entails reading for understanding, an in-depth reading of the text which seeks to uncover the true meaning/s of the text. Using the words in the text, the reader is able to infer effectively with sufficient evidence to validate his or her argument. The key findings of this study are cognitive reading strategies: pre-, during-, and post-reading strategies, paraphrasing, close reading, discussing the vocabulary used in poetry, and multimodality. These strategies provide an in-depth analysis of a poem and encourage a learner-centered approach to teaching and learning. Furthermore, they are compatible with Practical Criticism as a lens to poetry analysis because of their focus on the text. Understanding the congruence between these strategies and the sociocultural theory of learning, teachers can have effective poetry lessons.
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    Teachers’ experiences of teaching poetry to English second language learners: a case study of four high school teachers in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2020) Ngidi, Andile Bongekile.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    The teaching of poetry has evolved over the years in classrooms focusing on First Language speakers of English and in classrooms in which English is learnt as a Second Language (ESL). Teachers working in ESL classrooms within various post-apartheid South African contexts grapple with the teaching of poetry to ESL learners. It is these experiences that this study aimed to explore, as lived experiences help us to gain insight into people’s perceptions, motivations and behavior. The objectives of this study were to understand teachers’ experiences of teaching poetry to ESL learners from rural and township schools. This was done to understand the extent to which such experiences were positive or negative and to what they attributed these experiences. The study also explored the methods that teachers used when teaching poetry as these choices could have a direct bearing on the experiences that emerge from the teaching process. In this interpretive, qualitative case study underpinned by phenomenology and Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory, data was collected from a purposive sample of four teachers, two from rural high schools and two from township high schools. To collect data, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and document reviews of poetry lesson plans were used. The data was analysed using a qualitative analysis method which allowed for themes to emerge. The findings revealed that teachers’ engagement with poetry at high school or tertiary level played a part in their views about and experiences of teaching poetry in English Second Language classrooms as these earlier experiences directly influenced teachers’ pedagogy and in turn their experiences. However, the participants recognised the value of poetry in language learning, despite language barriers and a lack of resources at rural and township schools which has a direct bearing on their experiences. Teachers’ experiences of teaching poetry were also shaped by understanding who the learners are and the experiences learners bring with them into the ESL classroom. Finally, the findings revealed that some teachers indicated that they used a technicist stylistic form of engagement when teaching poetry and some indicated a more integrated, collaborative form of teaching both these methods spoke to the emergence of differencing experiences. However, there was sometimes a discrepancy between what teachers said they did when teaching poetry in classrooms and what their lesson plans revealed. This shed light to the fact that experiences cannot be investigation in isolation but that poetry teaching practices were closely linked to teachers experiences. Keywords: teachers’ experiences; poetry; English Second Language; teaching strategies.
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    Afstands-indiensopleidingsprogramme vir letterkundeonderrig in die Afrikaans t2 konteks:probleme en voorstelle.
    (1997) Buthelezi, Phumelele Olivian.; Swanepoel, Eduen.
    In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek in die eerste instansie die eienskappe van goeie afstands-indiensopleidingsprogramme. Daarna word die situasie, soos van toepassing op Afrikaans T2 letterkundeonderrig by die Umlazi Kollege vir Verdere Onderwys, beskryf. Ten einde probleme in die onderrigproses te indentifiseer, word een aspek, naamlik die personeelsituasie, aan die hand van vraelyste ondersoek. Vier aspekte kom in hierdie verband ter sprake: 'n persoonlike profiel van dosente, hulle kennis van metodologiese kwessies, asook van literere teorie en hulle/hul studente se leespatrone. Uit die data versamel en die analise wat daarop volg, word bepaalde aanbevelings gemaak om die situasie te verbeter. SUMMARY In this article I firstly look at the characteristics of quality distance in-service training programmes. Secondly I describe the situation pertaining to the teaching of Afrikaans L2 literature at Umlazi College for Further Education. In order to identify problems in the teaching process, one aspect, namely the situation of lecturing staff, is investigated by means of questionnaires. In this regard I focus on four aspects: a personal profile of lecturers, their knowledge of methodology, as well as literary theory and their/their students' reading patterns. Certain recommendations flow from the data gathered and the analysis thereof.
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    Degrees of transgression: the writing of South African Black Women Writers Miriam Tlali, Ellen Kuzwayo, Sindiwe Magona and Zoe Wicomb.
    (1996) Nattrass, Andrea Joy.; Attwell, David.
    This thesis examines the English autobiographical and fictional writing of four black South African women writers: Miriam Tlali, Ellen Kuzwayo, Sindiwe Magona and Zoe Wicomb. The introductory chapter provides a theoretical overview of the principle strands of feminism available to the South African feminist critic - French feminism, with its theoretical emphasis and "symptomatic" interpretation of texts; the American brand of "h'beral" feminism which tends to embody a more socio-historical, empirical approach; Materialist feminism which emphasises socio-economic conditions in the course of its analysis; and "womanism,11 an alternative to "western" feminism which .fili.ds considerable support in African and Afi:ican-Afireficm feminist 􀁩cir-Jes. These different theories are examined in order to formulate a mode of analysis to be applied to the writing of the four black South African women, an approach which draws on aspects of all these theories and takes cognisance of other factors unique to the South Afiican ord to most productively illumina e those aspects of the writers' work chosen for discussion. Following this opening chapter the thesis goes on to explore the writing of each of the four black South African women in tum. Each chapter contains an introductory section which provides biographical background on the writer under discussion as well as some insight into that individual's perspectives and opinions, usually drawn from their interviews, speeches and critical essays. This is followed by an analysis of their writing which deals with each book in tum: Tlali's two novels and short story collection, Kuzwayo's autobiography and collection of "oral" narratives, the two "volumes" of Magona's autobiography and her short fiction anthology and, finally, Wicomb's short fiction cycle and two individually published short stories. There are several issues with which this thesis is concerned in the course of analysing the writing of these women. These include an exploration of the positioning of black women through the interaction of the discourses of race, class and gender; a focus on how the various writers reflect on or construct a sense of their own identities; an examination of the situations in which they CDmplicate and/or transgress the dominant patriarchal societal attitude􀀆, riorities and codes of behaviour wliich they are "expected" to adhere to􀁘 as well as a concentration on the writers' sense of the lives and needs of other black women in tlieir communities. Such concerns are accompanied by a pervasive interest in attempting to identify and examine the tensions, ambiguities and contradictions which emerge (insidiously or dehberately) at various moments in the texts of these writers. The chapters are organised to chart what is perceived to be a progression among the various writers, in part marked by their increasingly sophisticated and more overtly feminist treatment of themes and issues concerning the "fictional" and "rel!t identities and/or lives ofblack women within South African society.
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    Literacy practices of english second language first year students at a university of technology.
    (2018) Mabaso, Cleopatra Ntombezinhle.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    This dissertation reports on a study involving English Second Language first year students at a University of Technology. In this study, I argue that English Second Language first year students’ early literacy practices have an influence on their academic literacy. Sociocultural theory serves as the theoretical framework, and, using four data generation methods I aimed at eliciting participants’ stories on what they considered to have been their early literacy practices and how they understood those practices to have influenced their current academic literacy, was used. The participants were able to narrate their stories clearly through the varied data generation methods. This study adopted an interpretivist paradigm, allowing me to hear and understand participants’ perceived realities on their early and current literacy practices. Participants realised that their academic performance was shaped by their home literacy environment, and primary and secondary education. They understood that even though an English rich home literacy environment and English-medium schools might have better prepared some of them to comprehend English at university, academic literacy, particularly academic writing, remained a foreign concept with which they all seemed to grapple. Participants were aware that they needed to adapt to the new university literacies and that they were largely responsible for the assimilation of these university literacies in order to perform positively. Additionally, participants felt empowered to participate in this study, as it allowed them introspection, awakened the desire to improve academically and enabled a cathartic experience, as some were able to let go of negative past events, which affected present literacy experiences. One implication from the findings is the acknowledgement that fluency in English does not necessarily imply competency in academic literacy and academic writing. This dissertation adds to the discourse on academic literacy and English Second Language first year students’ literacies, by demonstrating that the combination of an interpretive paradigm together with sociocultural theory, enables an understanding of the literacy practices of English Second Language first year students at a University of Technology.
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    Exploring applicability of theatre of the oppressed (TO) techniques in Fees Must Fall campaign at a University of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN).
    (2018) Luthuli, Thamsanqa Vusumuzi Wesley.; Yani, Sikhumbuzo Manwood.
    This masters thesis presents results of a research on the applicability of Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed techniques on the FeesMustFall movement in South Africa aimed at achieving fees free higher education. The study aims at exploring the Theatre of the Oppressed techniques be effective if used in the ‘Fees Must Fall’ campaign? How can Theatre of the Oppressed techniques be used as a suitable alternative in the struggle for free quality tertiary education for students in this province? The dissertation discusses Augusto Boal's notion of using the stage as a way of bringing solutions to problems of oppressed communities. The reality faced by black communities affect other aspects of the life experienced by black people in their community, starting with the education of black children. The theatre is a powerful tool to communicate messages, bring about unity in the community; therefore there is crucial need for holistic interventions to tackle these difficulties in the community and consequently in the schools and universities. The study has been carried as a desktop research where data was collected from existing literature and images from the internet. This study came up with Forum Theatre as the most effective tool for promoting dialogue and awareness to the communities plagued with oppression. Forum Theatre seeks to empower the powerless, liberate the oppressed and free bondages. The spectator is transformed into spect-actor where the audience participates in solutions and interventions. This study outlines the condition of South Africa as state and its challenges post-apartheid and how politics is playing out in higher education.
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    Reading habits of first-year students at a university of technology in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2016) Mbhele, Sebenzile Paulette.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    Reading plays a very vital role in the academia and for individuals’ personal growth and development. There appears to be a strong link between good reading habits and academic success. This study explored the reading habits of first-year students at a University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objectives of the study were to identify the materials that students read and explore the purposes for reading. The study was underpinned by various theories on motivation. This was a qualitative case study research and data was collected using three data collection tools: an open-ended questionnaire, draw-and-write technique and focus group discussion. The sample for the study was a class of 83 first-year students from the Faculty of Engineering. The findings showed that while students valued reading, they read occasionally or once a week, implying that students are not in the habit of regular reading. The study found that the materials read and enjoyed by students were books (inspirational, religious, novels), internet (social media and websites), magazines and newspapers. Academic books were less popular. The main purposes for reading for many students were largely extrinsically motivated to pass tests and examinations and to improve their English language proficiencies. The study recommended that lecturers should design reading materials that are visually appealing and they should incorporate the use of technology in their teaching. The study also recommended early introduction and exposure to different reading materials to improve reading habits.
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    Reading habits of grade 6 pre-adolescents at a primary school in Ottawa, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2017) Dorasamy, Rochelle.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    Studies have found that South African students lack adequate literacy skills. The problem may stem from a lack of reading material in vernacular languages, the language barrier, educators not being trained to teach literacy and the absence of libraries in some schools and communities. As a teacher of English, I wanted to explore and understand the reading materials which appealed to students and which they read, and their reasons for reading. The interpretive paradigm was used in this study with a qualitative approach. Three data collection instruments were used to bring about triangulation and they included an open-ended questionnaire, written document (reading log) and a visual document (poster). The questionnaire and the poster were administered to the 39 students at school; however, since the reading log entailed students keeping a record of everything they read over a two day period, students had to complete it at home. The study was underpinned by the theory of motivation with a specific focus on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The findings of the study revealed that the students at Dreamwood Primary read many texts which included: newspapers, school books, magazines, comic books, novels, religious books, posters/ charts, advertisements, mail, TV guide, T-shirts, and subtitles on television. Students read for several reasons. Some reasons include: learning for school purposes, completing homework, and because of their parents or educators instructing them to read. Other reasons for reading include: because they were bored, and/or wanted to pass the time. The findings are important as they revealed the materials the students enjoyed reading, and thus may be included in subsequent teaching and learning. However, since students read mostly to achieve good results, it is possible that educators are focussing on students reading for extrinsic motivation rather than reading for enjoyment (intrinsic motivation). Teachers may need to inculcate and foreground a love for reading and reading for pleasure in classrooms.
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    Experiences of the South African high school classroom : a case study of high school English classroom experiences of student-teachers of English at a University in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2016) Anyanwu, Munachiso Anselm.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    The purpose of this study was to understand student teachers’ experiences of the high school English classroom, and the impact, if any, of their experiences on their decision to become teachers, especially teachers of English. It is said that the quality of an education system is boosted by the quality of its teachers. Therefore, the purpose of my study is, furthermore to explore if student teachers’ perceived ability to function and perform as expected in tertiary studies is informed by their experiences of high school, and if their experiences of high school have anything to do with their decisions to become teachers. The respondents in this study were third year English Major students of the School of Education at a University in KwaZulu-Natal. With its emphasis on experiences, the study utilised a phenomenological framework. Underpinned by an interpretivist paradigm, the study used a qualitative case study method. Data were collected through questionnaires, individual semi-structured interviews and written narrative accounts. This study found that student teachers of English at a university had both negative and positive high school experiences, not just of schooling but of learning English. These experiences were subjective as it was predicated on each individual’s unique circumstance and context. Each context was found to be as unique to the individual as it is his/her experience. This study also found a disparity between student teachers’ experiences of urban schools and rural/township schools. While most urban schools enjoyed better facilities, quality teachers and teaching, township and rural schools were dilapidated and lacked quality, both in teaching and infrastructure. It also found that these experiences have impacted both positively and negatively on their current learning experiences at the university. The findings revealed that the experiences student teachers had had at high school often prompted them to become teachers. This study therefore concludes that high schools play a vital role in the future life of students, either in their academic life or in careers. It thus becomes imperative that high schools recognise their impact on students’ lives.
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    Concept de postcolonialité dans Aya de Yopougon de Marguerite Abouet par le biais de l’analyse d’une sélection des planches.
    (2015) Ntando, Joel Bonsango.; De Meyer, Bernard Albert Marcel Sylvain.
    The student’s primary motivation for engaging in this research project was to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the analysis of comics particularly those of Africa. The study focuses on Aya de Yopougon because of its success and historical richness. In the latter comic, two parallel worlds are presented: the Ivory Coast and France after 1960. Furthermore, this project will try to illustrate the relationship that may exist between postcoloniality and notions such as colony, colonization, and postcolonialism. Finally, this work will enrich our understanding of the concept of postcoloniality in societies through comic panels.
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    Teaching philosophical developments in the dramatic arts classroom : an action research study to improve my teaching practices.
    (2015) Pahlad, Mirasha.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    In order to improve my teaching strategies in the Dramatic Arts classroom in which I teach, I conducted an action research study with my students. This study was underpinned by critical pedagogy and guided by four research questions. Firstly I looked at how effective my usual teaching strategies were. Secondly I determined what interventions were used to improve my teaching practices. Thirdly I explored how the interventions in my teaching practices, were used to improve the teaching and learning of philosophical developments in Dramatic Arts. Lastly I focused on how the interventions improved my teaching practices. I drew on the teaching strategies, interventions and action research studies of other educators and researchers. The participants of this study were Dramatic Arts students in a secondary school in the Durban South region. Data was collected using various methods such as pre-intervention questionnaires, observations, journal entries, test marks, a focus group interview and post-intervention questionnaires. After teaching each philosophical development, data was collected and thematically analyzed, according to positive and negative responses from students. Thereafter careful reflection took place. The analysis and reflections informed the next intervention that I created and used to teach the next section. The interventions included teaching strategies such as teacher led discussions, teaching at a slower pace, constantly repeating the content of the lesson, using more examples in the classroom, having an activity at the end of the lesson and replacing complex terms with simpler meanings. I also aimed to create a suitable teaching environment and used problem-based learning, visual images, quotes, hotseating, groupwork and group feedback. The teaching strategies that proved to be the most effective were teaching at a slow pace, using examples that students could relate to and replacing the difficult vocabulary with simple and more understandable words. These were the teaching strategies that allowed me to become a more effective and successful educator. As a result, my students understood well and performed better. This in turn, made my teaching strategies more effective, satisfying and enjoyable.
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    Gender stereotyping in children's literature : an analysis of Anne Fine's Bill New Frock (2010) with grade 4 learners.
    (2013) Munthree, Pralini.; Sheik, Ayub.
    This purpose of this study is to determine the effect, if any, that gender stereotyping in children’s literature, has on learners’. The study looks at the analysis of a novel by Anne Fine entitled “Bill’s New Frock” (2010) in a grade 4 classroom. The study uses a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data to yield results. The study takes on a 3 stage structure i.e. pre-test (questionnaires) to determine existing gender stereotypes, during- test (reading of the novel) and post-test (focus group interviews). The results of the study found that learners’ have a pre-constructed understanding of gender stereotypes influenced by the society, community and population they originate. This is embedded into their conscious as a norm. However exposure to “Bill’s New Frock” (2010) challenged these gender understandings and not only sensitised learners’ to gender equality but also facilitated a change in their gender construct.
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    The effectiveness of cooperative learning in an English first additional language classroom.
    (2013) Ngubane, Nomalungelo Isabel.; Pillay, Ansurie.; Mthembu, Andrias Bheki.
    The purpose of this action research study was to investigate whether the implementation of cooperative learning strategies improved learner-learner interactions and teacher-learner interactions and enhanced the relationships between the teacher and learners and amongst the learners in an English First Additional Language (EFAL) grade 10 classroom in a township secondary school. The sample population, of forty learners, was from one class of grade 10 EFAL. Cooperative learning strategies were implemented into the EFAL curriculum and learners were observed throughout the study on how they used cooperative learning. In addition, interviews were used to determine learners’ perceptions and experiences of using cooperative learning. The results indicated that learner-learner and teacher-learner interactions improved when EFAL learners were engaged in cooperative learning activities. The results from this study concluded that cooperative learning, when used effectively in an EFAL classroom, enhanced interactions, developed positive relationship between the teacher and learners and amongst learners, supported EFAL skills, and improved learners’ motivation towards their learning.