ItemEffects of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial capabilities on graduate employability in Ghana.(2022) Mensah-Williams, Enoch.; Derera, EvelynEntrepreneurship education and training has been considered as a crucial tool in ensuring the development of national economies through the development of human resources (entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs). These products (entrepreneurs/intrapreneurs) of entrepreneurship education and training programmes are considered as the fourth most essential factor of production in both developed and developing economies. Their roles within global and local economies have been useful since the beginning of human history. This study sought to establish the connection that exists between entrepreneurship education and graduate employability in an emerging economy, which is an area that is under-researched and has been characterised with uncertainty of results. Specifically, the study investigated whether exposure to entrepreneurship education had the tendency to influence the development of graduates’ entrepreneurial capabilities, and their effects on employability in Ghana. The study was carried out in some twelve state-owned enterprises and three tertiary institutions in Ghana. A convergent mixed methods approach was adopted to gather data from a sample of three hundred and forty-two (342) respondents, comprising of three hundred and thirteen (313) graduates, seventeen (17) human resource managers, and twelve (12) entrepreneurship lecturers. Quota and convenience sampling techniques were employed to identify graduates, while academics (lecturers) and human resource managers were selected by way of census. A census was used because of the small number of academics and human resource managers involved in the study (i.e., less than fifteen in each case). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a questionnaire and interview guide, respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data, while content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data with the help of NVivo 12 Pro. Partial Least Squares (PLS) structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that entrepreneurial education has a significant positive effect on graduate employability in Ghana. Specifically, the study revealed that entrepreneurship education influences the acquisition and development of graduates’ entrepreneurial capabilities within the Ghanaian labour market. Entrepreneurial capabilities were also found to be relevant to the development and growth of state-owned enterprises in Ghana, in terms of competitive advantage, survival and sustainability, employee performance, organisation productiveness, as well as resource mobilisation and utilisation. The results also revealed that both entrepreneurial activities and approaches to entrepreneurship education influence the development of entrepreneurial capabilities of Ghanaian graduates. The findings of the study have implications for the teaching and learning of entrepreneurship in tertiary institutions, graduate empowerment and employment, as well as the recruitment and selection of graduates by human resource managers. It is, therefore, recommended that a national policy should be developed to provide a policy direction for entrepreneurship education, and resources should be devoted to its teaching and learning, as well as for research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effects of entrepreneurship education on graduate employability, with special attention on entrepreneurial engagements. ItemThe effects of institutions, innovation and business strategy on indigenous Ghanaian firms’ degree of internationalisation: determining the symbiotic relationships. Imiphumela yesikhungo, ubuhlakani kanye neqhinga lebhizinisi kumafemu omdabu aseGhana nezinga lomhlaba. Isinqumo sobudlelwano obuvuna nhlangothi zonke.(2021) Takyi, Nyankom Lydia.; Naidoo, Vannie.Studies involving indigenous firms’ international operations, the role of institutions and symbiotic relationships in export activities in developing economies, particularly in the Sub- Saharan African countries, are underexplored in the extant literature, which, however, takes a normally developed country perspective. The general discourse in the literature is the crucial role the external environment plays in firms’ international operations. This study examines how the relationship between government financial and non-financial support and its associated effect on innovation and strategic alliances enhances the foreign market operations of indigenous internationalising firms in the non-traditional crops industries in Ghana. In addition, the study examined the synergistic influence of symbiotic relationships in moderating the association between innovation, strategic alliances and the degree of internationalisation. Drawing on an institutional-based view and using a mixed-method approach (quantitative and qualitative), the study develops a complex model using survey data from 301 indigenous Ghanaian exporters. Data were explored using structural equation modelling and content analysis. The findings from the thesis show and confirm that formal institutional dimensions (government financial and non-financial) have a significant positive (direct and indirect) effect on firms' internationalisation. In addition, the symbiotic relationship was found to have a direct effect on internationalisation and a strong moderating impact on innovation and business strategy, while informal institutional dimensions revealed varied direct and mediating effects on internationalisation. The study builds strong arguments for institutional theory, resource dependency theory and symbiotic relationships. In addition, this study's findings contribute to the international entrepreneurship theory by explaining the mediating X (innovation and strategic alliance) and moderating (symbiotic relationship) role in a developing market like Ghana. This study's originality lies in its use of a rigorous analytical tool, the SEM method, to validate a complex mediated-moderated conceptual framework on indigenous firms internationalisation. The thesis recommends an extensive collaborative relationship with government; family and friends; experienced exporters; successful importers and local firms to establish comprehensive symbiosis factors to reinforce the association of innovation and DOI, and business strategy and DOI. İn addition, the study recommends an implementation of single corridor method of export for the non-traditionaly crops. Such implementation of a single corridor method will help control pricing and volumes of export products to the international market and thereby avoid spoilage of products and goods. Lastly, the thesis suggests that government should consider increasing exporters’ capacity and capabilities to spur innovation and improve the degree of internationalisation. Iqoqa Izinga lomhlaba lifuna ubudlelwano obukhombisa ukusizana phakathi kombusi, noncithisano, kanye nokomhlaba noma ingede ezothuthukisa ngokufanele, ukwazi, nobuncintiswano kanye nokwandisa okwenzekayo emhlabeni. Lolu cwaningo luhlola ukulamula okuneqhinga kobudlelwano phakathi kukahulumeni nezinga lomhlaba ezinkampanini ezizimele. Okufundwayo kwabe kuwukuhlola ulwazi oluqoqiwe kubahwebi abangumsinsi abangama-301, abatholakale engosini yaseGhana Export and Promotion Authority database. Ukuthembeka kanye nobuqiniso bolwazi kwavivinywa kusetshenziswa uhlelo oluqinisekisa imbangela sakuhlaziya, uhlaka lokulinganisa isilinganiso sokuhlaziya, lwahamba lusebenzisa, i-Amosv23. Okufundwayo kwaphetha ngokuthi kokubili ukusekelwa ngezimali noma ngokunye uhulumeni kwaba nokubaluleka okusezingeni eliphezulu. Lobu budlelwano balanyulwa ngokuvunwa iqhinga lokuhlanganyela. Okufundwayo kwakusasa kungahlola ubudlelwano obufanayo, kodwa bubuke ngale kokusekelwa nguhulumeni, izimboni zomdabu kanye nesifundo somhlaba esifaka nezinye izikhungo eziqhamuka ngaphandle ezinezithako ezifana nezimbangela ezinobunhlasiko. ItemAn assessment of impediments to continuity of family-owned small-and medium-enterprises beyond the first generation: a case of Manicaland in Zimbabwe.(2021) Sango, Chidochomoyo Portia.; Gamede, Vangeli Wiseman.One of the most important issues of our time is indisputably the lack of continuity of family-owned businesses, which causes the closure of industries and rise in unemployment in Africa and the world as a whole. Understanding the contribution of family run businesses to the Gross Domestic Product of a country and in the reduction of unemployment is a critical piece of this delicate issue. Family firms lead to economic advancement of countries leading to poverty alleviation. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the impediments hindering family-owned businesses from continuing beyond the first generation, a case of Manicaland Zimbabwe. For this study, family-owned businesses in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe were surveyed and data collected on the impediments hindering these firms continuing beyond the first generation. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyse results depending on the specific objective to be answered. Quantitative data was hence analysed using descriptive statistics whilst qualitative findings were transcribed, coded, and analysed using interpretation and thematic approaches which describe interpretations of participants’ views, perceptions, and experiences Practically the results may allow visionaries of family owned businesses, managers, educators, and others to take more informed actions in avoiding the impediments hindering the continuity of these firms after the demise of their founders. Purposive sampling was used. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data, and the response rate was 80%. The qualitative data was analysed using the Nvivo method whilst quantitative data was captured in Excel and later imported to SPSS.The results indicated that in as much as family-owned businesses contribute to the economic well-being of a nation, little is being done to train the visionaries in terms of succession so that their businesses continue beyond the first generation owners. Recommendations were made so as to reduce these impediments. A model was propounded for family-owned businesses in Africa to follow, so as to ensure continuity of these firms beyond the first generation. ItemEffectiveness of entrepreneurship education in a turbulent economy: the perceptions of entrepreneurship graduates in Zimbabwe.(2020) Jengeta, Mirriam.; Phiri, Maxwell Agabu.The effectiveness of entrepreneurship education may be enhanced if graduates’ views on the issue are made known. Ever since Zimbabwean universities started offering entrepreneurship as a discipline, graduates’ views on the effectiveness of the programme have not been explored. Empirical evidence shows that there is a positive correlation between entrepreneurship education and economic development. Contrary to the above, however, the Zimbabwean situation has negative pointers. Eentrepreneurship education is regarded as a poverty alleviation strategy the world over; yet, regardless of the large numbers of Zimbabwean entrepreneurship graduates qualifying for the industry every year, the economy does not seem to recover. This necessitated a study into the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in a turbulent economy from the entrepreneurship graduates’ perspective. The focus was to assess the extent of entrepreneurship education in Zimbabwean universities, graduates’ perceptions on the effectiveness of training methods used in entrepreneurship education, the influence of experiential learning on entrepreneurship education as well as the influence of entrepreneurship education on venture creation and creativity. The positivist philosophy together with the descriptive design and quantitative approach were used in this study. The cluster sampling method was used to select 223 participants out of a target population of 526 Chinhoyi University of Technology (CUT) entrepreneurship graduates of 2012-2016. Questionnaires were used to gather data which was analysed using SPSS version 22. The findings revealed that entrepreneurship education was being offered from primary school to tertiary level in Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the Zimbabwean entrepreneurship teaching methods were not effectively promoting entrepreneurs. Experiential learning and other more practical approaches were seen as appropriate for entrepreneurship training. Graduates believed that entrepreneurship education has a positive influence on venture creation and creativity. It was recommended that entrepreneurship education should be reinforced across all the learning levels (primary school up to tertiary) and a clear demarcation to be made at each level. A comprehensive overhaul of entrepreneurship teaching methods and approaches used to cater for experiential learning were recommended. Further recommendations were the involvement of stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of policies facilitating venture creation and creativity, commercialisation and industrialisation of products and services. ItemPsychosocial determinants of entrepreneurial readiness: the role of TVET institutions in Nigeria.(2021) Adeniyi, Adeshina Olushola.; Gamede, Vangeli Wiseman.; Derera, Evelyn.Scholarly works in recent times have made substantial efforts to identify that aspects of entrepreneurship that can stimulate entrepreneurial readiness for venture creation. Perhaps some of the most investigated subjects are personality traits, education, and social values. Previous studies on the need for entrepreneurial skills have established a disparity between the curriculum, pedagogical methods and the required skills for business creation. As a result, identifying the determinants of entrepreneurial readiness is of utmost necessity considering the increasing rate of youth unemployment in Nigeria. This current study aimed at determining psychosocial factors of entrepreneurial readiness by examining the influence of entrepreneurship education (EE), entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) on entrepreneurial readiness. This research study was sustained by the pragmatism philosophical paradigm. Case study research design was employed, and the mixed method approach was used in the collection of data for the purpose of triangulation of results. Through the use of triangulation technique, questionnaires were administered to a sample of 301 exit level students of three selected Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in South-West Nigeria, using convenience sampling strategy. A response rate of 96% from the students was achieved. With the adoption of purposive sampling technique, nine entrepreneurship teachers were selected for in-depth interviews from the three selected TVET institutions. Eight of the respondents granted the interviews, which was 88% response rate. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was achieved through the use of NVivo 12 software. SPSS version 25 was used in analysing the quantitative data. Descriptive and inferential statistics which include, Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses of the quantitative data were conducted to achieved the research objectives. Three hypotheses were formulated to test the conceptual model through multiple regression analysis. A significant association was found between EE and entrepreneurial readiness. ESE searching, planning and implementing were found to be significantly associated with entrepreneurial readiness, but ESE marshalling has no significant association with entrepreneurial readiness. IEO as a whole showed significant association with entrepreneurial readiness, while risk-taking propensity was non-significant with entrepreneurial readiness. The study established that the exit level students lack the skills to gather economic or business resources towards starting a business. The study also revealed that entrepreneurship curriculum at the selected TVET institutions lacks practical approach. There is no evidence in literature that attempts a mixed method approach to determine psychosocial factors of students’ entrepreneurial readiness in the context of TVET institutions in Nigeria. The outcome of this study revealed that EE, ESE and IEO are psychosocial determinants of entrepreneurial readiness. ItemA framework to improve access to external finance by Small and Medium Enterprise start-ups.(2018) Bamata, Nkombe Herman.; Fields, Ziska.; Govender, Krishna Kistan.Despite the efforts of the South African government to develop the Small Medium Enterprise (SME) sector, start-up businesses not only face restricted access to but also challenges in accessing external finance, which acts as the main barrier to their growth and development. In light of the aforementioned, this study aims to propose a framework to improve access to external financing by SME start-ups. The formulation of the framework is based on a review and critique of the literature on the key determinants of the success of SME start-ups, namely, start-up awareness, management skills, and the requirements of finance providers. SME start-ups may be considered as a special case of resource-based theory due to limited resources of the firm. Start-up awareness and management skills are considered as necessary resources that will help the SME to acquire and develop other resources that will lead to a competitive advantage and superior performance. This study has adopted a quantitative approach to collect and analyse data since this is the only way to test the various hypotheses postulated based on the resource-based theory. A sample of 252 SME start-ups was randomly selected from among SMEs located in Pietermaritzburg, the capital city of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Researchers may extent and roll out the research at the national level or other regions of the world. The data was used to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical analyses and structural equation modelling, using the Smart PLS statistical software. Seven hypothesised relationships were tested, and it was found that start-up awareness and management skills positively influence access by SME start-ups to government, corporate and personal/social sources of finance. This study provides the necessary tools to start-up entrepreneurs to improve their access to external finance in South Africa. This study specifically highlights the different determinants of start-up awareness and management skills, and explains how the SME start-ups’ applicability of these determinants would influence their external financing accessibility. Also, this study highlights how finance providers could be able to develop matured relationships with SME start-ups, assess their finance applications based on the determinants of start-up awareness and management skills. The proposed framework maps the start-up entrepreneur’s business awareness and the requisite management skills with the finance providers’ requirements for granting finance and provides the entrepreneur with a clear idea of the type of finance to apply for and the optimal financing options for their businesses. ItemFinancial literacy among small and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe.(2018) Mutengezanwa, Margaret.; Sibanda, Mabutho.Global concerns about financial literacy have heightened following the 2007/8 global financial crisis where it became apparent that lack of financial literacy was one of factors that contributed to the detrimental financial decisions taken. There is global recognition that poor financial decisions have a harmful overspill impact on financial and economic stability. In light of the importance of financial literacy in all economies, this study was conducted to ascertain the level of financial literacy among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Zimbabwe that are key contributors to economic growth. The study was motivated by the need to develop a comprehensive financial literacy strategy which, if implemented, would enable business players to operate in the current financial landscape characterised by an influx of complex financial products. This research sought to relate financial literacy to financial product awareness and utilization and describe the financial behaviour of SMEs and their patterns of debt management. While governments across the world have expressed concern about the financial literacy levels of different population cohorts and have launched financial education programmes, Zimbabwe is lagging behind. Despite numerous initiatives by the government to support SMEs, business growth remains subdued, the sector remains financially excluded and many businesses fail within the first five years of operation. Research indicates that business failure is a result of poor financial management, hence it became necessary to establish the level of financial literacy of SMEs so that a comprehensive financial literacy strategy could be developed to address the phenomenon. A quantitative cross sectional research design was employed, with data collected by means of a questionnaire administered to a sample of 384 SMEs in Harare and Bindura district. The study‟s findings revealed that financial knowledge was low, notably among the young and aged, those who are single, separated or divorced and, surprisingly, those with more business experience. Significant differences were noted across age groups, business sectors and years of experience in business. Although SMES exhibited positive and somewhat positive financial behaviour, a correlation analysis between financial literacy and financial behaviour revealed a weak positive relationship, calling for the need to seek strategies to address financial literacy. The study also established that SMEs are not aware of many financial products, nor do they utilize them. An association between financial knowledge and financial product awareness was noted, with those with high financial knowledge being aware of many financial products. However, no association was noted between financial knowledge levels and financial product utilization. Regarding debt behaviour, the research established that SMEs were not comfortable with their debt positions but because they were aware of the consequences of default, they made sure they met their financial obligations on time. In times of financial distress, friends and relatives were the main sources of funding and loans were beginning to gain popularity due to the increase in the number of micro finance institutions. On the whole, the research concluded that there is low financial literacy and low utilization of financial products among SMEs, but positive debt behaviour. The study recommended the introduction of financial education for SMEs and the development of the curriculum thereof, the increase in awareness campaigns, and an increase in access to information on financial products and services by the SMEs. ItemFactors influencing the successful adoption of technopreneurship in the food processing sector in Zimbabwe.(2015) Kakava, Nicholas Zivengwa.; Fields, Ziska.Technopreneurship has been found to be one of the modern approaches to lead economic development in such success stories like the Asian upcoming economies. From such a background, the study endeavoured to determine the factors which influence technopreneurship in such a developing nation as Zimbabwe. From theory and practice, technopreneurship is found to be the key to knowledge-based economies that can assist most developing countries that may struggle to industrialise. Zimbabwe as an economy is well positioned to produce food products for the domestic and other regional and international economies. The objectives of the study were: to examine factors that influence the adoption of technopreneurship in the food processing sector in Zimbabwe; to assess the importance given to technopreneurship by the food processing sector in Zimbabwe; to examine the feasibility of technopreneurship, and to test the relationship between factors that influence technopreneurship in the food processing sector in Zimbabwe. Current literature on technopreneurship addresses issues in developed countries and success stories of other upcoming economies like India and China. The study contributed to the context of technopreneurship in developing countries and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The issues of a lack of development in such nations like Zimbabwe which may have natural endowments and what could be seen as good economic policies were addressed. A model of a technopreneurship system was proposed to contextualise the Zimbabwean technopreneurship situation and this could apply to most regional and global situations. The research onion was adopted to guide the research methodology and methods. The positivist research philosophy and a quantitative research approach were adopted to gather data through a questionnaire from the major industrial food processing technopreneurs in Harare. Nine companies were contacted to get a final sample of 147 respondents who included management, administrative and technical staff. SPSS was used for data management and quantitative data analysis techniques which included descriptive and inferential statistics adopted. Findings suggest that technopreneurship plays an important developmental role in the food processing sector and while several factors influenced technopreneurship such as internal processes; human factors; global factors; venture capital; partnerships, and government support was found to be the most important factor influencing all other factors. The major and determining factor influencing technopreneurship in the industrial food processing factor in Zimbabwe was Government support. A contribution to new knowledge and respective stakeholders in technopreneurship was made. ItemGovernment policies and strategies in dealing with challenges confronting small and medium enterprises : a case of Harare, Zimbabwe.(2015) Bomani, Mapeto.; Fields, Ziska.This study focuses on the success the Zimbabwe government policies and strategies in addressing the challenges faced by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Harare, Zimbabwe. The study was conducted with a view to developing a policy and strategy framework for promoting the development of SMEs in Harare, Zimbabwe. Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, was used as a study site. Pragmatism constituted the research philosophy for the study. The study adopted a case study design in which SMEs in Harare were studied. The mixed-methods approach was employed, along with concurrent triangulation. SMEs, officials from the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises and Co-operative Development (MSMECD), officials from the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Corporation (SMEDCO) and academics from three state universities in Harare constituted the population under study. The study employed purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Stratified random sampling was employed, in which the SMEs were divided into three strata: primary, secondary and tertiary. Purposive sampling was used to select the officials from the MSMECD and SMEDCO, as well as the key informants from three state universities in Harare. The study used a sample of six business advisors from SMEDCO and another six from the MSMECD. A sample of 382 SMEs was selected for the collection of empirical data using questionnaires. Of the 382 distributed questionnaires, 344 were returned, representing a response rate of 90 %. Primary data was gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were administered to the SMEs, while in-depth interviews were conducted with the officials from SMEDCO and the MSMECD, as well as key informants from the three state universities. Documents were employed as secondary sources of data for the study. The quantitative data collected through the questionnaires was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data was presented using figures, tables, graphs, pie charts, and percentages. The IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to analyse the quantitative data. SPSS was also used to calculate the Cronbach’s alpha. The alpha coefficient ranged from 0.729 to 0.878, indicating that the questionnaire was a reliable data collection instrument. Content analysis was employed in the analysis of the qualitative data gathered from the in-depth interviews. The intention was to achieve an adequate and detailed analysis of the data in order to obtain sufficient information relating to the challenges faced by SMEs in Harare, the vii government policies and strategies employed to address these challenges, and the success of the policies and strategies. The findings of the study showed that SMEs in Harare are confronted with challenges which include limited access to funding, limited access to markets, a lack of technical and management skills, antiquated machinery and equipment, increasing competition in the market, infrastructural challenges, and restrictive government laws and regulations. It was empirically confirmed that the government responded by creating partnerships with the private sector, non-governmental organisations, and other countries in the provision of funding, training and technology transfer. The study also revealed that the government promoted SME access to markets through participation in local and international trade fairs, business expos, and exhibitions, as well as facilitating SME involvement in public procurement. The government also imposed import duties to protect domestic businesses from foreign competition. Higher education institutions, which constitute part of the government’s overall strategy of promoting SME growth, have been instrumental in addressing SME challenges. However, despite its various policies and strategies, the government of Zimbabwe, on the whole, has not been successful in addressing the key challenges confronting the SME sector in Harare. This study builds on and broadens the current knowledge on the success of government policies and strategies in addressing SME challenges in Harare, Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the study proposes a policy and strategy framework for promoting the development of SMEs in Harare, Zimbabwe.