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Doctoral Degrees (Management)

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    Exploring the role of pedagogical practices in the brand identity formation of selected Gambian universities.
    (2022) Ikonne, Ozioma.; Arbee, Aradhna.
    This study sought to facilitate insight into the potential role of pedagogy in the brand identity formation of higher education institutions (HEIs), through a study of selected HEIs in The Gambia. Specifically, the study sought to address the following research question: What role do pedagogical practices play in building the brand identity of selected universities in The Gambia? The study was underpinned by an interpretivist philosophy and the intra-paradigm qualitative mixed method of data collection (O'Reilly, Kiyimba & Drewett 2020). This facilitated a preliminary analysis of the contents of institutional documents and social media postings. This was followed by telephonic and virtually mediated in-depth interviews in which the interactionist interpretations, recollections, experiences, and opinions of 54 participants (students and staff) were explored on the themes of institutional brand management practices, institutional pedagogical practices, institutional brand identity, and the links between pedagogical practices and institutional brand identity. The study used the Corporate Brand Identity Matrix (Urde 2013) as a supporting framework of analysis. The findings indicate that the HEIs recognise the emerging trend of competition in Gambia’s higher education sector as a consequence of government’s liberalisation policy. However, there is no evidence of the majority of them responding to emerging competition using strategic marketing and branding. The evidence suggests that the HEIs use hardly differentiated, production-style portfolios of academic courses to pursue largely unengaged students, prospective students and other stakeholders. Further findings indicate that academic staff use a narrow variety of pedagogical approaches, with the teacher centered, lecturing method emerging as dominant. This insight emerged against the background of the evidence which indicates a link between pedagogy policy and practices and stakeholder impressions. A synthesis of these findings culminated in the emergence of the pedagogy-based higher education brand identity matrix (P-HEBIM), which this study proposes as a novel framework for the branding of HEIs. Drawing on this, the study sets out a practitioner guide for the use of the P-HEBIM, making specific recommedations for the brand management roles of different HE stakeholders in The Gambia.
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    The role of the DFIs in financing small businesses in South Africa.
    (2017) Ntiso, Lisebo Agnes.; Phiri, Maxwell Agabu.
    This study explored the role of the development finance institutions (DFIs) in financing small businesses as a strategic tool for growth and development of the small business sector in South Africa. Although much research has been done and many debates have been argued around the problem of access to finance for small businesses, much of the documentation focuses on commercial lending and little attention has been devoted to development financing. Therefore, this study focused on the role of the DFIs in financing small business, in addition to studying the extent to which development financing narrows the financing gap and impacts on the growth of small businesses. Along with an extensive literature study, this thesis adopted a sequential exploratory mixed-methods approach consisting of two phases. Phase 1, a qualitative approach, through in-depth face-to-face interviews with the DFIs at both national and provincial level, was carried out to explore the existing programmes at the DFIs and to determine the extent to which the DFIs impact on the growth of small businesses. Phase 2, a quantitative approach, was based on a survey to investigate the perceptions of the entrepreneurs in Tshwane regarding the extent to which the financing by the DFIs, as identified from Phase 1, impacts on the growth of their businesses against business growth strategies; how it bridges the financing gap; and how the concept of development finance is constructed from the entrepreneurs’ perspective. The results from the literature study show that as an important strategic growth tool, development financing should be aligned to the growth plans of small businesses. Small businesses should therefore understand their position in the industry life cycle, which along with strategic growth and financing options available for the particular position, will allow them to make informed decisions on business financial needs. The findings of Phase 1 of the empirical research illustrate that the DFIs have both financial (in the form of asset finance, grants, loans and procurement finance) and non-financial programmes aimed at the development of small businesses. The results further show that the DFIs consider the number of employment opportunities created; skills development and business survival as measures of growth and development. Through the use of businesses support services, the DFIs help small businesses to establish banking relationships with financial markets, which can later benefit small businesses for relationship lending. The results from the Phase 2 investigation indicate that small businesses perceive financing by the DFIs as an alternative financing option. However, loans provided by the DFIs are perceived, like commercial loans, as too expensive and negatively affect cash flow. The results further show that stokvels, although informal, are used as a development financing platform by SMMEs. Entrepreneurs would prefer the establishment of a small business development bank that will work exclusively with the SMME sector and that understands the needs thereof – as per the stokvel model. The results further show that there is a perception among entrepreneurs that development finance from the DFIs is not easily accessible to the entrepreneurs. The findings of both Phase 1 and 2 show that both the DFIs and the entrepreneurs do not share a common understanding of business growth strategies and the financing options suitable for the growth stages of the business life cycle.
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    A socio-technical understanding of information and communication technology (ICT) integration in education − a case study of three secondary schools in Mozambique.
    (2017) Ginger, Lúcia Joaquim.; Govender, Irene.
    The implementation and use of Information and Communication Technology is seen as a vital strategy for boosting the educational sector (Glowa & Goodell, 2016; Kamei, 2015; Tolica, Sevrani, & Gorica, 2015). The integration of technology in education is associated with the promise of enhancing quality and efficiency in teaching and learning activities, particularly in developing countries. Monitoring and assessing the extent to which technology is integrated into the education system, so as to maximize the outcomes, affects decision-making processes. Moreover, the effective implementation of technology in the education sector must align with the contextual background, which involves political, cultural, technical, and social entities. An understanding of technology implementation in which the socio-technical context influences the acceptance and usage of technology is limited in Mozambique. A key aim of this thesis is to understand the effective implementation and use of technology in secondary schools in Mozambique, which is a developing country. In order to gain insight into the implications of this use, a blend of Actor Network Theory (ANT) and elements of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) have been employed to evaluate the process of technology integration into the education system as a package, in which the mutual dependence between the social and technical is highlighted. Maputo province in Mozambique was chosen as the site for this research. Both qualitative and quantitative data approaches were employed. Empirical data was drawn from three public secondary schools from different localities that comprise the research case study. For the contextualization of the research topic, data were collected by employing interview-based case studies, document analysis, observation, and a questionnaire-based survey to complement and explore the views of students and teachers. The findings revealed that technology implementation in secondary schools is a dynamic process which is impacted either positively or negatively by the surrounding contextual situation. The study emphasizes that the role of non-human actors such as the ICT curriculum guide, the time- table and the schools’ basic infrastructure and its relationship with human actors, such as the heads of schools, teachers, and students, is gradually shaped by technology and its related network entities. Therefore, acceptance and use of technology in the education system may be observed through a successful translation of technology into schoolwork practices. The thesis hopes to contribute to the theoretically based framework by providing an alternative perspective to research technology implementation in education, in which socio-technical assumptions are considered. The thesis captured salient actors in the integration of technology, both human and non-human, relevant to user acceptance and use of technology.
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    A conceptual framework for teaching and learning entrepreneurship in universities in South-West Nigeria.
    (2017) Fayomi, Ezekiel Jide.; Fields, Ziska.
    The process of repositioning an education system in a manner that is responsive to the needs of the learners as well as the society at large is an emerging global issue in entrepreneurial research. This is because the quest for developing an entrepreneurial knowledge and skills within a classroom environment is found to be complex and full of several challenges. Previous studies have established the problem of a mismatch between the curriculum, delivery approach and learning outcomes. As a result, making the conventional learning model more innovative in a way that the intellectual capacity of graduates is promoted, has recently become an area of concerted interest among researchers. This study determined the significance of teaching and learning methods in entrepreneurship. The study also determined the current school practices in the context of teaching and learning entrepreneurship. Other innovations in teaching and learning methods from empirical evidence in entrepreneurial research were also determined in the context of university-level training in entrepreneurship. The significance of experiential learning strategies compared with the formal model of learning provides learners with more motivation for establishing business enterprises. Recent studies suggest that such innovation in higher education institutions (HEIs) boosts entrepreneurial intention, attitude, and behaviour of a potential or nascent generation of entrepreneurs. This study explores the potential embedded in blended learning model, which supports the integration of arrays of learning techniques, to validate a scientific framework for sustainable entrepreneurship training and development. By triangulating data collection techniques, questionnaires were administered to a sample of seven hundred and one (701) respondents comprising undergraduate and post-graduate students and lecturers of three selected universities in South-West, Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. A response rate of 94.86% was achieved. In-depth interviews were also conducted with nine (9) senior academic planning experts in the universities. Advanced total content analysis (TCA) of the qualitative data and descriptive statistics including Pearson’s correlation, t-tests and regression analyses of the quantitative data at the 0.05 level of significance, were used to address the research objectives using SPSS (version 23). A significant positive correlation between delivery strategies, institutional framework and entrepreneurial intentions was established. The traditional learning model and the mindsets to seek after remunerative employment (r = 0.151, p<.0005) were found to be positively related. The study concludes that the pedagogical blend of regular academic activity and some strategic standalone learning activities have significant positive influence on entrepreneurial intentions. The implication is that only delivery approaches preferred by the entrepreneurial education stakeholders (students, lecturers, and academic planning experts), could drive entrepreneurial desirability and intention in HEIs. Such practices appear to have remained a challenge in most HEIs in the developing nations around the world.
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    A business model to improve the management and value creation of renewable independent power producer plants in South Africa.
    (2018) Khonjelwayo, Bongani.; Fields, Ziska.
    ABSTRACT The study proposes a renewable Independent Power Producer (IPP) business model. The model is a framework that identifies a number of business activities that need to be performed by managers in order to ensure that a IPPs business yields value for the shareholders and stakeholders. The main objective of the study was to propose an IPP business model by examining the various inputs, business processes and activities in an IPP plant that are designed to yield value to shareholders through effective and efficient management of resources. The study is important because IPPs are exposed to numerous business risks and challenges. These include construction risks, such as the risks of cost overruns and contractor underperformance. There are also operational, market and political risks to which IPPs are exposed. Additionally, existing business models don’t sufficiently capture the business risks that renewable IPPs are exposed to. These include market, technology, reputation and risks of change in legislation. This study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was conducted through interviews with managerial employees of the first 40 IPP companies that were successful bidders of the Renewable IPP Programme of the Department of Energy (REIPPP). The second stage of data collection was through a survey questionnaire to test themes and items that will be included in the proposed business model. The survey questionnaire findings were used to analyse the importance of each variable in order to make a decision whether to include it in the proposed business model. The main findings of the study are that the renewable IPP business model consists of a number of unique components which represent the chose inputs, business activities, outputs and outcomes that can be used by an IPP businesses to deliver value to its shareholders and stakeholders. These components consists of a number of themes relating to managerial activities should be executed to improve the management of IPPs, reduce business risks and create value the renewable IPPs in South Africa. Some of the inputs include pre-investment activities, post-investment activities, Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) management, grid management, planning and executing operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. iv The study succeeded in collecting and contextualising the experiences of new IPPs and linking those to relevant business sector trends. The findings of this study make a contribution towards the existing body of knowledge in the fields of management as well as energy studies. One of the research gaps emanating from this study is that there is insufficient empirical research to understand the components of business models as a managerial concept. This study makes a contribution towards closing these gaps. The study also makes a contribution in the academic knowledge in the subject of business models by expanding on the knowledge about the components of business models and their importance as a management tool. The proposed business model is presented as an original contribution to the management of IPPs, based on empirical data collected from IPPs operating in South Africa. From a management point of view, the components of the business model can be used as a guideline for business management and improvement.
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    The influence of supply chain management on service delivery in KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport.
    (2017) Dlamini, Cynthia Vuyisile.; Bozas, A.R.
    Supply chain management is the tool that was introduced by government to ensure that services are delivered effectively and efficiently through citizens of the country. Goods and services are provided to serve the interest of the people to deal with macroeconomic factors such as unemployment, poverty eradication, economic growth, health and education. The Department of Transport’s core functions are to construct, repair and maintain the provincial road network, as well as plan, regulate and provide an integrated transportation system. The Department is also responsible for managing road traffic systems. In conducting its business, the Department should ensure that it creates job opportunities and develops human resources and communities in support of the provincial growth and development plan. Supply chain management is the vehicle that will drive the department in fulfilling its mandate. If service delivery is compromised, the country could face huge protests, which often result in vandalising of the infrastructure that is very costly to the state. Supply chain management plays a crucial role in influencing service delivery. Hence, the decision to conduct this study to explore the influence of supply chain management on service delivery at KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport. Non-probability sampling, the purposive sampling method, was used to select 15 participants. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to generate data from participants to understand the phenomenon under the study. This data collection technique gave the researcher an opportunity to follow up on interesting issues that emerged during the interviews and it also enables valuable information to be gained through probing the participants. Data collected was analysed using a thematic method. Findings revealed that proper planning is very important for linking demand management with the budget available. Accountability and responsibility is important when making decisions that will compromise service delivery. Supply chain management must be implemented to yield the results that will benefit all the stakeholders and necessary precautions should be taken to eliminate fruitless and wasteful expenditure.
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    The perceived impact of management styles on employee job satisfaction and organisational commitment: a case study of Hulamin, Pietermaritzburg.
    (2022) Nxumalo, Mbalenhle Mandisa.; Gamede, Vangeli Wiseman.
    This study, which drew on the view that the management style that a manager uses to direct their employees plays a vital role in ensuring employee satisfaction with their jobs and decisions to commit or not to their organisations, investigated the impact of management styles on employee job satisfaction and organisational commitment. The study used a quantitative research approach in which three variables were tested using job satisfaction as a moderating factor. The study used a questionnaire that had eight Likert-scaled sections numbered from B to I with each section consisting of items that address a specific measurement or construct to collect data from 242 employees at Hu- lamin, Pietermaritzburg. The response rate was 97 percent. The reliability of these constructs was analysed using Chronbach’s Alpha statistic. The study findings revealed that not all management styles impact job satisfaction and organisational commitment. The autocratic management style had a significant negative impact on organisational commitment without job satisfaction as a moderating factor and with job satisfaction as a moderating factor. The democratic management style had a significant positive impact on organisational commitment in the absence of job satisfaction as a moderating factor and with job satisfaction as a moderating factor. It was discovered that the laissez-faire management style can be subdivided into two categories, which comprise of negative attitudes (-) and positive attitudes (+). The laissez-faire management style (-) had no significant impact on organisational commitment in the absence of job satisfaction as a moderating factor and still had no significant impact on organisational commitment with job satisfaction as a moderating factor. Job satisfaction had a significant positive impact on organisational commitment, but its presence in the regression model did not significantly affect the impact of both the laissez-faire(-) and laissez-faire(+) aspects of the laissez-faire management style on organisational commitment. The paternalistic style of management was found to have a significant positive impact on organisational commitment in the absence of job satisfaction as a moderating factor and still had no significant impact on organisational commitment with job satisfaction as a moderating factor. The persuasive management style had a significant negative impact on organisa- tional commitment without the moderating effects of job satisfaction. However, in the presence of job satisfaction, the persuasive management style had no significant impact on organisational commitment. As a result, job satisfaction had a significant moderating effect on the impact of the persuasive management style on organisational commitment. The study findings have implications for practice in organisations, organisational policy formulation and research focusing on the determinants for employee commitment in organisations.
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    Brand naming for black owned fast moving consumer goods-small medium and micro enterprises in the KZN province: grounded theory approach.
    (2022) Kunene, Lindiwe Nqobile.; Phiri, Maxwell Agabu.; Mbhele, Thokozani Patmond.
    Brand names influence consumers’ purchase decisions and the success of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) depends on strong brand names. Black-owned Small, Medium, and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) in South Africa in the FMCG industry struggle to compete with established brands, partly due to inadequate brand name choices. In the province of KwaZulu-Natal, as in the rest of South Africa, SMMEs are at the heart of the economic development agenda and FMCG industries are a significant part of this strategy. It is argued that FMCG-SMMEs can accelerate economic growth as they provide essential goods, on-demand at all times, even during pandemics like COVID-19 and in the face of poverty. This study sought to identify the brand naming practices applied by black-owned FMCG-SMMEs without being influenced by the expectations of existing, usually Western brand naming theories. Exploratory qualitative research methods were employed and Grounded Theory (GT) was used to create theories to define brand naming by black-owned FMCG-SMMEs in KwaZulu-Natal. Saturation was employed to set the parameters for the sample size. Data was collected by means of open-ended interviews and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Data collection was guided by four objectives, namely, brand naming processes; strategies employed to select brand names; brand linguistic considerations including the use of African languages; and the socio-economic dimensions of the brand naming process. The study identified five steps in brand naming that are different from the Euro-American steps and similar to some East Asian steps. The seven strategies adopted by the FMCG-SMMEs included dimensions not commonly used in the West, including brand name motivation, promoting the family legacy in the form of selfnymic and childnymic practices, black economic consciousness and universality. Inrelation to linguistics, the study identified the use of the letter ‘d’ plosive, sound, semantics and fictitious words to define the role of language and brand naming by black-owned FMCG-SMMEs. In terms of socio-economic factors, it established that education and training programmes, as well as previous experience in a start-up business or as an employee influenced the brand naming practices of black-owned FMCG-SMMEs in KwaZulu-Natal.
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    A framework for the adoption of digital terrestrial television - the case of eThekwini Municipality. Uhlaka Lokutholwa Kwe-Digital Terrestrial Umabonakude - Udaba lukaMasipala weTheku.
    (2022) Mabaso, Brian George.; McArthur, Brian Walter.; Naidoo, Karunagaran.
    Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) brings many benefits to viewers compared to regular analogue televisions. Although many countries around the world introduced DTT with such benefits in mind, the rates of DTT adoption have been slow compared to other developing nations, and consequently, many countries, including South Africa, had to postpone the analogue switch-off date. Given the lagging consumer adoption of DTT in eThekwini Municipality, The purpose of this study is to apply the UTAUT model in predicting the citizens’ intention to adopt DTT and to determine the possible reasons for the slow adoption of DTT in eThekwini Municipality. This study is exploratory and employs a mixed methods approach, combining a quantitative approach using a survey questionnaire as a data collection tool, and a qualitative research approach, using interviews to collect data from industry experts. A total of 138 out of 267 respondents participated in the quantitative study, resulting in a 52% response rate, while 10 industry experts were interviewed as part of the qualitative study. The structural equation model (SEM) was employed to measure and analyse the relationships of observed values and latent variables, resulting in a new developed model. The findings indicate that the effect of the moderator variables on the relationship between the exogenous constructs and the dependent variable was found not to have a significant impact. The exogenous constructs of the UTAUT model that were investigated are Performance expectancy, The results from the quantitative study showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the exogenous construct constructs and the behavioural intention to adopt, meaning that the citizens have intention to adopt DTT if it is made available. The qualitative results showed that leadership instability, policy inconsistencies, political interference and self-serving interest from some stakeholders were some of the factors behind the slow adoption of DTT. Iqoqa: I-Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) inosizo olukhulu kubabukeli uma kuqhathaniswa nohlobo lomabunakude abayi-analogue. Nakuba amazwe amaningi emhlabeni ethula lolu hlobo lwe-DDT emazweni awo ngoba elandela lezi zinto eziningi ezitholakalayo, amazinga okwamukela i-DTT asephansi kabi uma kuqhathaniswa nokwasemazweni asathuthuka kangangokuthi elaseNingizimu Afrika sekukaningi lihlehlisa usuku lokucima uhlelo lwe-analogue. Ngenxa yokulibala kwabanikazi bomabonakude ukuthi bashintshele ku-DTT ezindaweni zikaMasipala waseThekwini lolu cwaningo luhlose ukusebenzisa imodeli i-UTAUT ekuzameni ukuhlonza ngezinhloso zezakhamuzi ekuthatheni i-DTT kanye nokuthola izizathu okuyizona ezibangela ukuthi kuthathe kancane ukwamukelwa kwalolu hlelo lwe-DTT eThekwini. Lolu wucwaningo oluhlolayo futhi lusebenzisa indlela engxube luyihlanganisa neyikhwantithethivu. Ekuqoqeni imininingo lusebenzisa uhlu lwemibuzo yesaveyi bese kuthi ngokwendlela yokucwaninga eyikhwalithethivu lusebenzisa izinhlolomibono ekuqoqeni imininingo kochwepheshe bakule mboni. Kwababezophendula imibuzo abangama-267 bayi-138 sebebonke ababamba iqhaza ocwaningweni oluyikhwalithethivu, okusho ukuthi izinga lalabo abaphendula lingama-52%, kanti kwabuzwa imibuzo kochwepheshe bakule mboni abayi-10 kuyo le ngxenye eyikhwalitheyithivu. Kwasetshenziswa i-structural equation model (SEM) ekuhloleni nasekuhlaziyeni ubudlelwano bamagugu abonakalayo kanye namavariyebuli acashile ukuze kuthuthukiswe imodeli entsha. Imiphumela iveza ukuthi umthelela wamavariyebuli aziwa ngele-moderator variables ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwezincazelokuzakhela eziqhamuka ngaphandle kanye nevariyebuli encikile wakhombisa ukuba namandla amakhulu. Izincazelokuzakhela zangaphandle zemodeli i-UTAUT ezaphenywa zaba ngezokusebenza okulindelekile. Imiphumela yocwaningo oluyikhwantithethivu yaveza ukuthi kunobudlelwane obuhle nobukhulu phakathi kwezincazelokuzakhela zangaphandle kanye nokuzimisela ukwamukela, okuchaza ukuthi izakhamizi zizimisele ukwamukela i-DTT uma isitholakala. Imiphumela eyikhwalithethivu yaveza ukuthi ukungazinzi kobuhloli, izinqubomgomo ezishintsha njalo, ukugxambukela kwezombusazwe kanye nokuba ogombelakwesakhe kwalabo abangababambiqhaza kungezinye zezimo ezidala ukwamukeleka kwe-DTT ngendlela ehamba kancane kakhulu. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo inemithelela eminingi kulabo abenza izinqubomgomo kanye nabasakazi kanti ingabhekiswa kakhulu ezakhamizini ngoba imininingo yesampula yayiqoqwa ezinkundleni zokuxhumana, okuyinto eyayivalela ngaphandle labo emiphakathini abangenayo indlela yokusebenzisa lezi zinkundla zokuxhumana. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo yenezezela kwinjulalwazi ngalezi zindlela ezilandelayo: imodeli i-UTAUT yenezezelwa ngolwazi lobuchwepheshe njengencazelokuzakhela eyengeziwe kanti ibuye yenze neziphakamiso kulabo abathuthukisa izinqubomgomo.
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    The relationship between market efficiency and performance : the Nigerian banking sector. Ubudlelwane phakathi kokuSebenza kahle kweziMakethe kanye neMiphumela yokusebenza: Umkhakha wezamaBhange waseNigeria.
    (2022) Lisoyi, Benjamin Oludotun.; Naidoo, Vannie.
    The relationships between market efficiency and performance are of relevance in Nigeria, but they remain controversial. Hence, this study examined the relationships between banking market efficiency and bank performance between 2011 and 2018. Specifically, the study investigated whether relationships exist between product marketing strategies employed by commercial banks; internal marketing; market orientations; employees’ performance; commercial bank’s competitiveness and performance. The purpose of this study is to contribute further evidence on bank efficiency by defining alternative efficiency measures and investigating the link between such measures and the market performance of financial institutions. The study adopted the survey research design. The population comprised of all male and female employees in all twenty-one (21) commercial banks operating in Nigeria. From sampling frame, there were 14, 084 employees as accessible population in the study. The sample consisted of 400 employees selected through stratified random sampling from six (6) commercial banks with Headquarters in Lagos metropolis. A highly structured self-developed research instrument tagged “Bank Market Efficiency Questionnaire (BMEQ)”was used in the study to collect data. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 was used for data set and presentation of the data. The descriptive (mean, standard deviation, percentile) and inferential statistics (Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis) were used to answer research questions and test hypotheses respectively. Data were presented in tables, charts and graphs to illustrate the findings of the study. Specifically, Data Envelopment Aficantlynalysis (DEA) statistical method was used to measure bank efficiency, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistical procedure was used to determine the relationship between product marketing strategies employed by commercial banks and their performance; the relationship between marketing efficiency and commercial bank’s performance; the relationship between internal marketing and market orientations of commercial banks; the relationship between internal marketing and employees’ performance in commercial banks; and the relationship between internal marketing and commercial bank’s competitiveness. The results showed that marketing efficiency ratio statistically significantly increased overtime. There was a significant relationship between product marketing strategies employed by commercial banks and their performance. Further, there was a significant relationship between marketing efficiency and commercial bank’s performance. The significant relationship between internal marketing and market orientations of commercial banks was identified. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between internal marketing and employees’ performance in commercial banks. Finally, there was a significant relationship between internal marketing and commercial bank’s competitiveness. The study concluded that market efficiency influences bank performance in the Nigerian banking sector, as marketing remains a veritable tool for attracting customers to buy into various banking services and products in the country. It was recommended that commercial banks should adopt internal marketing to improve bank performance in Nigeria. Iqoqa: Lo mqulu uhlaziya ubudlelwane phakathi kokuhwebelana kwangaphakathi kanye nomsebenzi wokwaneliseka kwabasebenzi kanye nokukhiqiza phakathi kwamabhenki ezimali eLagos eNigeria ngenhloso yokuthuthukisa izinga lokuhwelebelana kwangaphakathi kulo mkhakha. Uhlakamqondo locwaningo lobuhlobo phakathi kwezinto ezimbili kanye nendlela yocwaningozinombolo kusetshenzisiwe. Imininingo iqoqwe ngendlela yohlamibuzo okuzikhandelwe lona. Abahlanganyeli bahlanganisa abesilisa nabesifazane abakhethwe ngokuthanda abangama-348 abangabasebenzi basemabhange ezimali ezikhungweni ezintahthu zamabhange ezimali eLagos. Ukuchazwa kanye nokuhlobana kwezinombolo kusetshenzisiwe ukuhlaziya imininingo. Imiphumela iveze ubudlelwane obukhulu phakathi kokuhwebelana kwangaphakathi kanye nokwaneliseka kokusebenza kwabasebenzi kanye nokukhiqiza. Okunye futhi, izinga lokuhwebelana kwangaphakathi lithuthukise ukuqwashiseka kwabasebenzi ngezidingo zabathengi kanye nemivuzo yokuthengisa. Mayelana nale miphumela, kuyaphakanyiswa ukuthi amabhange ezimali abambe izinhlelo zokuhwebelana kwangaphakathi ezibhekene ngqo nabasebenzi ukuze kukhule ukwaneliseka kwabasebenzi kanye nokukhiqiza. Amagama Anqala: Abathengi Bangaphandle, Abathengi Bangaphakathi, Ukuhwebelana Kwangaphakathi, Ukwaneliseka, Ukukhiqiza.
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    Implementation of health management systems in Department of Health primary health care facilities in uMkhanyakude District, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Kubheka, Zamanguni Fortunate.; Moshabela, Matlagolo Mosa.; McArthur, Brian Walter.
    South Africa, as in many other countries, has had challenges attaining health outcomes, and has attributed this to weak health systems. Management strengthening has been prioritised as a critical entry point and core element towards strengthening the health system. Poor management of primary health care facilities has been identified as a major challenge to improving quality of health services. The study aimed to examine the role played by Operational Managers (OMs) on the implementation of health management systems at primary health care facilities in the uMkhanyakude Health District in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. The World Health Organisation’s conceptual frameworks for health systems performance systems, General Systems theory and Contingency theory were used as lenses to support the study. This study was exploratory in nature, and conducted through qualitative research methodology wherein OMs and primary health care Supervisors/Managers as the line managers of OMs in 56 primary health care facilities in the KZN DoH, uMkhanyakude Health District were purposively selected and interviewed through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The findings included that most management decisions, including planning, budget planning, workforce planning, supply chain and financial management, are centralised and controlled at the sub-district level, hence OMs play an insignificant role. OMs are not involved in planning, budgeting, and management of expenditure, management of supply chain or maintenance. The inadequate support and mentorship, lack of management training, ineffective centralised management systems, shortage of staff and too many programmes make it impossible for OMs to successfully implement their management functions, leading to a weak health system. It is recommended that the inputs and suggestions of OMs must be sought or they must be partially involved in critical decision-making as they are responsible for management of operations at this level. A systemic thinking approach when formulating management strengthening interventions will ensure that the focus is on resolving challenges across all management components and will strengthen the entire health system.
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    Investigating predictors for the successful implementation of open innovation: a case of small and medium enterprises in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa=Ukuphenya iziqaguli ekuqalisweni ukusebenza okunempumelelo kombonokuziqambela ovulekile: Okucwaningwayo amabhizinisi amancane namaphakathi KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika.
    (2022) Hlatywayo, Victor.; Williamson, Mervywn Kenneth.
    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in South Africa’s economic growth. These entities are faced with managerial issues that pose dangers to their survival. Open innovation (OI) emerged as a critical business strategy used predominately by large businesses to improve performance. It is defined as a distributed innovation process based on purposively managed knowledge flows across organisational boundaries, using pecuniary and nonpecuniary mechanisms compatible with the organisation’s business model. Studies shows that the OI concept is not widely used by SMEs in South Africa. Specifically, the study aimed at understanding whether internal knowledge, external knowledge, and strategic networks influence the successful implementation of OI in SMEs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case study approach was used to study SMEs in Pietermaritzburg. Convergent parallel mixed methods approach was adopted where qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. Purposive and convenience sampling were utilised as non-probability approaches to select participants from a sample of 260 SMEs owners, managers/supervisors, and employees. The findings indicated that there is correlation between internal knowledge, external knowledge, and strategic networks in influencing the successful implementation of OI in SMEs. The findings also identified dominant factors that affect full adaptation of OI by SMEs. The factors include lack of leadership, adaptation capacity, patent and motivation issues, lack of finance, and lack of collaboration. Given the findings of this study, SMEs are encouraged to embrace OI principles where collaborative and strategic partnerships are formed with other businesses to complement internal innovation processes for sustainable growth. Further research should be done to identify strategic and sustainable partnership models for the application of OI in SMEs. Government and policy makers are encouraged to craft and enact policies that incentivise and encourage SMEs partnerships through OI initiatives. Given the inter-relationships between internal knowledge, external knowledge, and strategic networks in predicting successful application of OI in SMEs, the study encourages SMEs owners to adopt OI to deal with failure rate and improve their innovation processes. Embracing OI will assist SMEs deal with sustainability issues as innovative processes and new partnerships are forged to boost operations. Iqoqa: Isendlalelo: Amabhizinisi amancane namaphakathi (ama-SME) abamba iqhaza elikhulu ekukhuleni komnotho eNingizimu Afrika. Lezi zingxenye zibhekene nezindaba zezimenenja ezibeka engozini ukusimama kwazo. IOpen Innovation (i-OI) iqubuka njengemiqondosu yebhizinisi elibucayi esetshenziswa ikakhulukazi emabhizinisini amakhulu ukuphucula insebenzo. Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi umqondomsuka we-OI awusetshenziswa kakhulu ama-SME eNingizimu Afrika. Inhloso yocwaningo: Kunesidingo esinentshisekelo esicwaninga iziqaguli zokuqalisa ukusebenza okunempumelelo ze-OI kuma-SME KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika. Ikakhulukazi, ucwaningo luhlose ukuba kube nokuqonda ukuthi ulwazi lwangaphakathi, ulwazi lwangaphandle, nobuxhakaxhaka bemiqondosu enomthelela ekuqaliseni ukusebenza okuyimpumelelo kwe-OI kuma-SME KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika. Umumosakhiwo/Indlelakwenza ucwaningo/ Indlelasu: Indlelasu yocwaningonto yasetshenziswa ukubheka i-SME eMgungundlovu. Indlelasu yezindlelakwenza ucwaningo eziyindlelangxube eyinguqulakuqondanisa lapho kwasetshenziswa khona izindlela zekhwalithethivu nekhwantithethivu ukuqoqa imininingo. Kwathathwa amasampula ahlosiwe nasebenza ngendlela ngoba izindlelasu ezingaqaguleki zikhetha ababambiqhaza esampuleni elinabanikazi bama-SME abangama-260, izimenenja/izinduna, nabasebenzi. Imiphumela/Okutholakele: Okutholakele kukhombise ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kolwazi lwangaphakathi, ulwazi lwangaphandle, nobuxhakaxhaka bemiqondosu enomthelela ekuqaliseni ukusebenza ngempumelelo ye-OI yama-SME. Okutholakele kuphinde kwakhombisa izinto eziqonelayo ezinomthelela wenguqulasimo egcwele ye-OI yama-SME. Izinto zifaka ukungabibikho kobuholi, umthamokukwazi ukufukamela, iphethenti nezindaba zokugqugquzela, ukuntuleka kwezimali, nokuncipha kwensebenziswano. Izincomo: Uma kubukwa okutholakele kulolu cwaningo, ama-SME agqugquzelwa ukuba afukamele imigomo ye-OI lapho ukubambisana kwensebenzelwanondawonye enomqondosu kwakhiwa namanye amabhizinisi ukunezezela izinhlelokusebenza nemizamokwakha yangaphakathi ukuba kube nokukhula okusimeme. Ucwaningo olwengeziwe kumele lwenziwe ukuhlonza amamodeli obambiswano olusimeme lokufaka izicelo ze-OI kuma-SME. Uhulumeni nabenzi bezinqubomgomo bagqugquzelwa ukwakha nokumisa izinqubomgomo ezifaka uxhaso nezigqugquzela ubambiswano lwama-SME ngemizamomibono ye-OI. Izinkomba zobumenenja: Uma kubhekwa ubudlelwano phakathi kolwazi lwangaphakathi, ulwazi lwangaphakathi, nobuxhakaxhaka obunemiqondosu ekuqaguleni ukufaka isicelo esiyimpumelelo se-OI kwi-SME, ucwaningo lugqugquzela abanikazi bama-SME ukuba kwemukelwe i-OI ukubhekana nesikalosilinganiso sokungaphumeleli nokuphucula izinhlelokusebenza kwemizamokusebenza. Ukufukamela i-OI kuzosiza ama-SME abhekane nezindaba zokusimama njengezinhlelokusebenza zemizamokwakhiwa nobumbanokubambisana olusha lwenziwelwa ukufukula imisebenzi. Amabinzana asemqoka: Ulwazi lwangaphandle; ulwazi lwangaphakathi; imizamokwenza evulelekile; ama-SME; ubuxhakaxhaka obunemiqondosu  
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    Impact of workplace discipline on organisational performance at a selected chemical organisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa=Umthelela wokuqondiswa kobugwegwe emsebenzini ekwenziweni kahle komsebenzi enkampanini yamakhemikhali eqokiwe KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika.
    (2022) Sishi, Kusangiphila Kenson.; Naidoo, Vannie.
    In today’s competitive environment, workplace discipline has been considered an important strategy that influences positively organisational performance. Although workplace discipline has received scholarly interest from both organisational researchers and human resource management practitioners, arguably, there is still a paucity of research on the impact of workplace discipline on organisational performance in KwaZulu-Natal. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of workplace discipline on organisational performance at Sappi Saiccor, Umkomaas. The study adopted descriptive and exploratory research to describe and provide in-depth knowledge about the subject. The mixed methods approach was employed to collect and analyse the quantitative and qualitative data. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 291 participants from a population of approximately 1200 Sappi Saiccor, Umkomaas employees in KwaZulu Natal. An online questionnaire and structured interview grid were used to collect the data. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 27.0) was used to analyse the quantitative data while the qualitative data was analysed using NVivo (version 12.0). The quantitative results revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between workplace discipline and organisational performance. Similarly, the qualitative findings affirmed that workplace discipline positively impacted organisational performance at Sappi Saiccor. Additionally, the quantitative and qualitative findings revealed a positive relationship between workplace discipline and employee relationships. Moreover, the quantitative and qualitative results showed a significant relationship between organisational performance and COVID-19. Besides, the results of this quantitative and qualitative study found a positive relationship between workplace discipline and the impact of COVID-19. The scope of the study was limited to the impact of workplace discipline on organisational performance at Sappi Saiccor mill, Umkomaas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study recommends that employers must be consistent during disciplinary processes and communicate properly the organisational rules and procedures. IQOQA Empilweni yanamuhla enokuncintisana, ukuqondiswa ubugwegwe emsebenzini kuthathwa njengesu elibalulekile elinomthelela omuhle ekwenzeni kahle kwenkampani noma kwenhlangano. Yize ukuqondiswa ubugwegwe emsebenzini sekushukumise intshisekelo kubacwaningi kanye nabalawula amahhovisi ondabazabantu, kunokushoda kocwaningo ngomthelela wako ekusebenzeni kwezinkampani KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika. Ngakho-ke, lolu cwaningo lwaluhlose ukucwaninga ngomthelela wokuqondiswa ubugwegwe ekusebenzeni kwenkampani yakwaSaiccor, Umkomaas, KwaZulu-Natali. Lolu cwaningo lwakhetha indlela echazayo nehlolayo ukudingida kanye nokunikeza ulwazi olujulile ngalesi sihloko. Kwasetshenziswa indlela yocwaningo engxube ukuqoqa nokuhlaziya imininingo ewucwaningozinombolo kanye nekhwalithethivu. Amasu okuqoka ngokohlelomikhakha kanye nangokwenhloso kwasetshenziswa ukukhetha ababambiqhaza abayi-1200 abangabasebenzi bakwaSappi Saiccor, eMkomaas, KwaZulu Natali. Kwasetshenziswa uhlumibuzo lwezobuchwepheshe kanye nemposambuzo ehleliwe ukuqoqa imininingo. Kwasetshenziswa iStatistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 27.0) ukuhlaziya imininingo yocwaningozinombolo kwase kusetshenziswa iNVivo (version 12.0) ukuhlaziya imininingo eyikhwalithethivu. Imiphumela yocwaningozinombolo yaveza ukuthi kunobudlelwane obuhle obuqinile phakathi kokuqondiswa ubugwegwe kanye nokusebenza kwenkampani. Ngokunjalo, imiphumela yemininingo ekhwalithethivu yagcizelela ukuthi ukuqondiswa ubugwegwe kwakunomthelela omuhle ekusebenzeni kweSappi Saiccor. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiphumela yocwaningozinombolo neyekhwalithethivu yaveza ukuthi kuba nobudlelwane obuhle phakathi kokuqondiswa ubugwegwe nobudlelwane babasebenzi. Imiphumela yaphinde yaqhakambisa ukubaluleka kobudlelwane bokusebenza kwenkampani kanye nomthelela weCOVID-19. Umklamo wocwaningo wawubhekene kuphela nomthelela wokuqondiswa ubugwegwe ekusebenzeni kwenkampani yakwaSappi Saiccor Mill, eMkomaas, KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika. Ucwaningo luphakamisa ukuba abaqashi bakhombise inhlalanjalo mayelana nenqubo yokuqondiswa ubugwegwe futhi bazise ngemithetho nenqubo yasemsebenzini ngendlela efanele. Amagama asemqoka: Ukuqondiswa ubugwegwe; ukusebenza kwenkampani; COVID-19; ubudlelwane kubasebenzi; ubudlelwane ngokwasemsebenzini.
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    Exploring workplace environmental factors affecting female academics' psychological resilience: a mixed methods sequential explanatory study=Ukuphenya umumonhlaliswano wendawo yokusebenzela othinta ukuzimelela kwensebenzongqondo yabesifazane abafundisa emanyuvesi.
    (2022) Cadete, Núria Leandra de Jesus.; Ruggunan, Shaun Denvor.
    A review of the relevant extant literature suggested that Higher Education Institutions [HEIs] are heavily dependent on the psychological resilience [PR] of academic staff members to achieve excellence in teaching and learning. However, there is a dearth of research that focuses specifically on the PR of female academics [FAs] in the context of workplace environmental factors [WEFs] in South African HEIs. In response, this study was conducted to identify some of the most prevalent WEFs-related adversities that may put FAs at risk for high levels of negative mental health outcomes [NMHOs], and the fundamental building blocks of psychological resilience [BBPRs] that FAs may exhibit in response to WEFs-related NMHOs. A mixed method sequential explanatory approach within the pragmatism paradigm was applied in this study. Through this approach, a sample of 135 FAs was drawn from the University of KwaZulu-Natal [UKZN] to participate in the dominant quantitative phase. Of the 135 FAs, 27 FAs were purposefully selected to participate in the follow-up qualitative phase. Informed consent was obtained from all FAs/participants prior to participation in this study. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected using online self-report surveys and indepth/ semi-structured interviews respectively; and subsequently analysed using Stata and Thematic Analysis, respectively. Primarily, the results of the study indicated that administrative demands and skewed workloads; research demands; teaching demands; and compensation and rewards were reported as the highest WEFs causing NMHOs. However, knowledge, skill, and ability [KSAs]; coaching support; professional and personal networking; and mentoring support were ranked as the lowest WEFs causing NMHOs. Generally, as a group, while participants reported having positive experiences towards the BBPRs [i.e., neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, and coping]; the majority of participants expressed experiencing high levels of NMHOs [i.e., stress, burnout, depression, anxiety, and compassion fatigue]. Overall, this study concluded that the PR of FAs depended crucially on individual factors [i.e., demographic characteristics] and work-related factors [i.e., support from the university management and human resource management [HRM]. The conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions made by this study are discussed; limitations and delimitations are acknowledged; and recommendations for UKZN management and HRM, and future research are proposed. Iqoqa Ubukezo lomthamombhalo osekhona ongenayo lwaphakamisa ukuthi izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme [ama-HIE] ancike kakhulu ekuzimeleleni ngezomqondo [i-PR] kwamalungu abasebenzi abafundisa emanyuvesi ukufika kokuhle kakhulu ekufundiseni nasekufundeni. Kodwa, kunokuntuleka kocwaningo olugxile kwi-PR yabafundisi basenyuvesi abangabesifazane [ama-FA] engqikithini yezimo zendawo endaweni yokusebenza [ama-WEF] kuma-HIE aseNingizimu Afrikha. Ekuphenduleni, lolu cwaningo lwenziwa ukuhlonza izingqinamba ezihlobene nama-WEF avame kakhulu okungabeka engcupheni esezingeni eliphezulu ama-FA ngokwemiphumela yempilo yengqondo engeyinhle [ama-NMHO], nezakhi ezibalulekile zokuzabalaza komqondo [i-BBPR] ezingavela kuma-FA uma ebhekene ne-NMHO ehlobene ne-WEF. Isukuchaza elilandelanisayo lendlela yokwenza ucwaningo exubile nepharadayimu yephragmathikhi kwasetshenziswa kulolu cwaningo. Ngale ndlelakubuka, isampula lama-FA ayi-135 lathathwa eNyuvesi yaKwaZulu-Natali ukuze libambe iqhaza lesigaba esikhulu sekhwantithethivu. Kuma-FA ayi-135, ama-FA angama-27 akhethwa ngenhloso ukuze abambe iqhaza esigabeni sokulandelela sekhwalithethivu. Imvume enolwazi yatholakala kuwo wonke ama-FA/ababambiqhaza ngaphambi kokuba babambe iqhaza kulolu cwaningo. Imininingo yekhwantithethivu noma yekhwalithethivu yaqoqwa kusetshenziswa amasaveyi okuzenzela-umbiko otholakala ku-inthanethi nezimposambuzo ezijulile/ezinesakhiwo esingaphelele, bese kuhlaziywa emva kwalokho kusetshenziswa i-Stata noKuhlaziya iNdikimba. Okokuqala, imiphumela yocwaningo iveze ukuthi izidingo zokuphatha nemithwalokusebenza engalingani; izidingo zocwaningo; izidingo zokufundisa; nesinxephezelo nomklomelo kwabikwa njengama-WEF aphezulu kakhulu adala ama-NMHO. Kodwa, ulwazi, ikhono nokukwazi [ama-KSA]; ukwesekwa kokuqeqesha ukuxhumana nokusetshenzwa nabo ngokomsebenzi nangokomuntu empilweni yangasese; ukweseka kokuthwasisa kwabekwa ezingeni eliphansi le-WEF edala i-NMHO. Ngokuvamile, njengeqembu, ngesikhathi ababambiqhaza bebika ukuthi benzakalelwa okuhle uma kuziwa kuma-BBPR [okungukuthi, inyurothizimu, ukuqaphela, ukufaneleka komuntu nokumelana nesimo]; iningi lababambiqhaza laveza okulehlele ngamazinga aphezulu kakhulu e-NMHO [okungukuthi, ingcindezi, ukukhathala kakhulu, ukhwantalala, ixhala nesifo sokukhathala ngenxa yokuzwelana]. Ngaphezu kwakho konke, ucwaningo luphethe ngokuthi i-PR ne-FA yayincike kakhulu ezimweni ezihamba ngazodwa [okungukuthi izimo zomumobuhlanga] nezimo ezihlobene nomsebenzi [okungukuthi ukweseka ekuphatheni inyuvesi nasekuphatheni izindaba zabasebenzi [HRM]. Ukufaka isandla kokungamakhonsepthi, okwenjulalwazi, okwezindlela zokwenza ucwaningo nezokuqoqa ulwazi okwenziwe yilolu cwaningo kuyadingidwa; okuyizivimbi nokumelene nezivimbi kuyavunywa; kanti okuphakanyiswayo kubaphathi base-UKZN kanye ne-HRM, kuphakanyiswa ucwaningo lwasesikhathini esizayo.
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    Information security standards and policies compliance by Nigerian banks.
    (2019) Williams, Adedayo Solomon.; Maharaj, Manoj Sewak.
    The modern banking sector is highly dependent on customer information to carry out its daily business. Such information is thus an asset which must be protected from threats; hence banks have adopted policies and standards in this regard. The Nigerian banking sector is characterised by on-going information security breaches. The reasons include low levels of individual and corporate compliance with information security standards and policies and procedures (ISSsPs), as well as the fact that banks focus on data usage optimisation rather than the privacy and security of customer information. This study examined the extent to which Nigerian bank employees comply with information security standards and policies and whether or not a relationship exists between the level of compliance and information security breaches. The theories of planned behaviour, protection motivation and self-efficacy were employed to identify the factors that motivate such compliance. The results show that all the motivational factors influence employee behavioural intention (EBI) to comply with ISSsPs. In the same vein, employee behavioural intention was found to influence such standards and policies. Hypotheses were also developed to investigate the mediating effect of EBI on the relationship between motivational factors and ISSsPs. The analysis showed that EBI has a partial mediation effect on the relationship between motivational factors and compliance with ISSsPs. The analysis of the effect of the motivational factors on ISSsPs revealed that the perceived severity of a penalty has a significant influence on compliance with ISSsPs. Certainty of detection was then regressed on employee intention to comply with ISSsPs and the results show that it has a significant effect. Furthermore, it was established that normative beliefs, the perceived effectiveness of information security standards, an awareness of information security threats, and perceived bias have a positive influence on an employee’s intention to comply with ISSsPs. The study also investigated the relationship between the compliance rate and experience of information security breaches. The analysis showed that there is a positive relationship between banks reviewing their ISSsPs and their experience of information security breaches. Thus, the more banks experience information security breaches, the more they review their standards. It was found that Nigerian banks review their information security codes and standards at least once a year. Finally, the study proposes and validated an employees’ compliance framework that has the potential to significantly improve employees’ compliance with ISSsPs, thus mitigating the effects of information security threats on Nigerian banks.
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    The influence of transformational leadership on employee engagement in the South African Revenue Service, Kwazulu-Natal Region.
    (2020) Mdletshe, Nondumiso Prudence.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The current turbulent economic era coupled with the fourth industrial revolution disruption considers leadership to be the most vital and effective machinery of an organisation for overcoming the current changing business trends and limiting socioeconomic issues. Leaders are bestowed with the bigger responsibility of channelling all the efforts and activities of their subordinates towards achieving the organisational goals and objectives. Effective and supportive leadership determines the success or failure of the organisation. Management at all levels in an organisation need to understand that organisational performance, which is realised through an engaged workforce, is a direct consequence of how people are managed and led. The study investigated the influence of transformational leadership on employee engagement in the South African Revenue Services (SARS) within the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) area. Transformational leadership distinguishes itself from the rest of the contemporary theories because transformational leaders influence followers to transcend self-interest and commit themselves to strive for higher order needs and excellence. The study used mixed-methods research methodology to ascertain that the constructs of transformational leadership such as “idealised influence”, “inspirational motivation”, “intellectual stimulation” and “individualised consideration” have a strong influence on employee engagement. Two hundred and thirty-one copies of questionnaire were distributed to the workforce within the KZN area, of which two hundred and twenty-one were returned, giving a 95 per cent participation rate. Eighteen participants were also interviewed. It was discovered that idealised influential leadership practices fostered teamwork, a collective sense of mission (purpose) and made employees feel valued. It was further found that the character of the leader was a very important attribute, as this considered their moral and ethical conduct. Findings also revealed that inspirational motivation made employees feel empowered and self–driven, and they experienced a sense of inclusion, whereas poor performance, low morale and decreased motivation were the consequent effects of a lack of inspirational leadership. Intellectually stimulating leadership allowed employees opportunities to suggest new ways of doing their job assignments. It promoted liberated minds, innovation, decision-making and trust. Lastly, the presence of individualised consideration leadership practices took cognisance of employees’ needs, abilities and aspirations and as such, employees were able to receive appropriate coaching and development, thus making them feel valued for their contribution to the organisation.
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    Optimising socio-economic benefits through competitive logistics systems, infrastructure and novel concepts for the Durban Aerotropolis.
    (2020) Ngwenya, Ngonidzahe Kenneth.; Naude, Micheline Juliana Alberta.; Wissink, Henry Frank.
    This case-based research study contributes to the description and understanding of the Durban Aerotropolis strategy and intends to establish how it can be successfully applied, given the logistics and mobility dynamics in the region. It has been determined in various studies that relevant and specialised approaches to policy making, spatial planning and transportation and connectivity planning can be prioritized in creating sustainable urban developments. As outlined in the literature, the Durban Aerotropolis strategy is a spatial planning concept which embodies the creation of aviation–oriented, airport centric developments in which local businesses are closely linked to their suppliers. The exploratory research design approach was deemed appropriate since there are few studies that have reviewed the Durban Aerotropolis master plan using Porter’s model of competitiveness and integrated logistics and mobility planning frameworks. In achieving the research objectives and answering the research questions, a mixed methods design was adopted in which qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used sequentially, concurrently, and iteratively. A plethora of sampling and data collection methods, including purposive and snowball sampling were applied, using 12 in-depth interviews, 5 focus group sessions involving 60 participants and organisational document reviews. In addition, 180 online questionnaire responses and observations from the 36 businesses located in the aerotropolis region were conducted. For the analysis and presentation of the research findings, thematic, content, descriptive and document analysis was applied, using Microsoft Excel, SPSS and CAQDAS. Evidence suggests that logistics and mobility planning and the infrastructure adopted has been instrumental in supporting an increase in passenger and cargo volumes. As much as the Durban Aerotropolis development is in its initial stages, there is evidence of socio-economic impacts relating to employment creation, growth in imports and exports and the creation of a competitive environment. The success of the strategy has been attributed to the adoption of novel strategies and concepts that enable improved logistics and mobility planning, connectivity and responsiveness among other critical success factors. This has seen several innovative strategies including roadway expansions, network designs, mobility platforms and many other infrastructural developments being considered for the Durban Aerotropolis.
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    Knowledge transfer in institutionalised supplier development and organisational performance: evidence from the construction industry in Zambia.
    (2021) Sikombe, Shem.; Phiri, Maxwell Agabu.
    Globally, the economic rationale for supporting SMEs using public procurement policy is well acknowledged and justified. Public procurement policy can be implemented directly through institutionalised supplier development initiatives such as Preferential and Reservation schemes, financial support, subcontracting and training. However, the efficacy of these initiatives on knowledge transfer and performance improvement are still underexplored. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of knowledge transfer from institutionalised supplier development initiatives on the operational performance of local contractors. The study also investigates the mediating role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between knowledge transfer and operational performance. Additionally, the research investigates the moderating effect of institutional factors on the relationship between institutionalised supplier development initiatives and knowledge transfer. The study used a mixed-method strategy, consisting of nine expert interviews and 171 questionnaire responses from local contractors in Zambia. The qualitative findings revealed that the implementation of institutionalised supplier development is strongly affected by institutional factors such as political influence and favouritism, corruption, inadequate procurement regulatory regime, weak institutional oversight, and monitoring systems. However, the initiatives contributed to information dissemination and knowledge transfer. The survey findings established that direct institutionalised supplier development, such as the 20 per cent subcontracting policy and training, were significantly associated with knowledge transfer. However, the association between indirect institutionalised supplier development such as the Construction Finance Initiative, Preferential and Reservation schemes and knowledge transfer was insignificant. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that knowledge transfer indirectly improves the local contractor operational performance through overall absorptive capacity. Additionally, regulatory compliance and government support moderate the relationship between institutionalised supplier development and knowledge transfer. Moderation interactions indicated that low regulatory compliance is associated with high knowledge transfer, while government support is associated with high knowledge transfer at all levels. The research advances a more nuanced understanding of the influence of absorptive capacity and institutional factors in implementing institutionalised supplier development using evidence from the construction industry in Zambia. The study proposes a number of recommendations to the top management of construction companies and the government.