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Doctoral Degrees (Science and Technology Education)

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    Exploring science educators’ reproduction and subversion of gender stereotyping in a College of Education in Nigeria.
    (2021) Allu, Daniel Asilika.; Govender, Nadaraj.; James, Angela Antoinette.
    The cultural production and reproduction of discriminatory gender practices in education and in society has been a global and local concern, thus attracting attention in current debates. Therefore, knowledge theorization aims at questioning and interrogating the socio-historical and patriarchal gender practices in the 21st century. A global transformation of gender may be one of the vital paths to empowering woman and the marginalized in education. In this study, gender equity, which is a process of attaining equality, is obstructed by socio-cultural relations of power, linked to discrimination, domination and entrenched stereotyping in society and is particularly now a focus too in science and science education. Science has been considered a male domain; a liberal feminist analysis views the space of women in science and science education as emanating from a long history of oppression of females in a patriarchal society. Therefore, orientations related to patriarchy, sexuality and culture currently dictate classroom engagements in science education, which impacts on student’s intellectual and career progress. However, an exposure to the impact of gender stereotype and inequality in science education is a possibility towards the intellectual, political, and economic transformation of females. This study explores six Nigerian science educators’ reproduction and subversion of gender stereotyping in physical and life sciences classes and is located within the critical interpretive paradigm. The research methodology comprised qualitative methods using questionnaire, interviews, classroom observations, reflective journals, and collective reflections. A qualitative case study research design was used for the study. Then, I used purposive and convenience sampling techniques to select six experienced science educators with heightened gender awareness in a college situated in North Central Nigeria where the study was conducted. The narrative method employed captures the selection and experiences of science educators and allowed for a nuanced understanding of educators’ views about gender stereotype reproduction and subversion. The data were analyzed for themes using gender lens of Critical Theory (CT), Critical Feminist Reproduction Theory (CFRT) and Critical Consciousness Theory (CCT) regarding cultural production and reproduction and gender transformation. The findings reveal that the construct ‘gender’ is indeed social construction, repeated acts linked to identity construction of male and female science educators. In this study, educators in physical and life sciences classes are shown to implicitly and/or explicitly reproduce gender stereotypes, but sometimes to subvert discrimination, consciously and unconsciously. Furthermore, educators, especially the male pre-service teachers, collude to stereotype female pre-service teachers. Also, female pre-service teachers are equally complicit in their own oppression. It appears the science educators, male and female pre-service teachers are not explicitly aware of their complicit gender stereotyping roles in science education during teaching and learning engagements. It was observed that female pre-service teachers are often overtly deterred from participating in the science education space. The unconscious and conscious actions of stereotyping by educators towards their female pre-service teachers are likely to reinforce multiple oppressions in their charges that will impact their future teaching and gendered roles in class. A pedagogic transformative gender model of enabling a contradictory, transformative and political college space for science educators and pre-service teachers to negotiate power differentials for a new social gender order is then proposed for collective action.
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    The relationship between novice physical sciences teachers’ beliefs and goals to inquiry-based instruction.
    (2022) Ngema, Sebenzile Helga.; James, Angela.; Sibanda, Doras.
    Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) has been positively associated with quality science education for the past 50 years. Research studies in science education cite beliefs and goals as the main reasons for the lack of IBI in science classrooms. Nevertheless, previous attempts to understand the reasons for this lack of IBI revealed a mismatch between science teachers’ beliefs to classroom practices. The research gap on improving physical sciences teachers’ IBI practices persists despite studies on teachers’ beliefs to classroom practices. This gap in the literature and continued use of traditional instruction have motivated this study to ascertain the impact of beliefs and goals in classroom practices. Framed by the constructivist learning theory and goal-driven teacher cognition model, this study explored the relationship between novice physical sciences teachers’ beliefs and goals to IBI practices. From a goal-driven theory of cognition perspective, teachers’ actions are an attempt to satisfy one or more of the goals they hold. This multiple qualitative case study was couched within the constructivist research paradigm. Four novice physical sciences teachers were purposively selected to participate in the study. Data were collected through multiple sources, including three open-ended questionnaires (TBI, POSTT, TGI), classroom observations, stimulated-recall interviews, collected artefacts, and field notes. The findings of this study revealed that despite the curriculum advocating IBI, novice physical sciences teachers’ enactment is at a low level, teacher-centred in their classrooms. Findings suggest that IBI practice is facilitated by mediating teaching and learning beliefs with environmental factors for goal adoption. They further provide evidence suggesting that the goals teachers pursue are influenced by their teaching and learning beliefs and their schools’ environmental factors. Among the key lessons from this study is that it is essential to help physical sciences teachers develop and pursue beliefs and goals that characterise IBI practices that have the potential to improve science education. This study provides several implications for teacher education and research.
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    Addressing sustainable development goals by leveraging indigenous knowledge: experiences of Science and Mathematics teachers.
    (2022) Sanjigadu, Sebastian.; Mudaly, Ronicka.
    The post-COVID era has illuminated the crucial role of education in reducing inequalities and promoting inclusive and sustainable growth. Literature is replete with rationales for higher education programmes to be aligned with the sustainable development goals through partnerships to ensure that programmes are globally and locally relevant. Based on these insights I adopted the Ubuntucurrere and decolonial theories as intellectual resources as I departed from traditional education norms which valourise only Euro-Western science and mathematics. I did this by exploring possibilities for leveraging indigenous knowledge to address the sustainable development goals in the curriculum. My study demonstrated the potential for transforming understandings of Education for Sustainable Development to include “low voices” in the production of valuable knowledge about sustainable living. I engaged 36 purposefully selected, practicing science and mathematics teachers who were enrolled in an Honours in Education module to generate qualitative data. I explored how science and mathematics teachers integrated indigenous knowledge to address sustainable development goals. Teachers participated in focus group interviews and engaged collaboratively with indigenous knowledge holders to develop portfolios of evidence, where they documented the stages of their work. They also taught lessons in micro-teaching sessions during which they demonstrated their ideas related to context, content, and pedagogy as they constructed and utilised IK to address the sustainable development goals. Among the strategies that teachers used was to engage Chilisa’s (2012) processes of “Dreaming, Commitment, and Action” by re-imaging and practically enacting lessons for sustainable development using a decolonial lens. Specific ideologies from Ubuntu-currere such as social interactions through collaboration and challenging epistemic othering of IK informed teacher thinking and action. The findings from this study revealed that science and mathematics teachers address sustainable development using indigenous knowledge in sparse, indirect ways in the curriculum. Findings also showed that teachers were committed to exploring indigenous pedagogy and content as a strategy to address sustainable development goals in the curriculum. Furthermore, my study revealed that science and mathematics teachers adopted specific strategies which resonated with work done during the teacher professional development programme in which they had engaged. This study also revealed factors that enabled or constrained teachers who sought to address the sustainable development goals by leveraging indigenous knowledge. The obstructive factors included issues of time management and an inherent lack of teacher capacity about content and pedagogy linked to indigenous ideologies and sustainable development. Enabling factors were linked to the “democratic interactions” that teachers experienced through their engagements with indigenous knowledge holders, with their lecturers, and with one another. Teachers addressed obstructive factors by developing teacher agency and seeking assistance from more knowledgeable individuals who were supportive of their learning processes.
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    Indigenous knowledge and infectious diseases: rethinking the teacher education Biology curriculum.
    (2022) Trinos, Kutenda.; Mudaly, Ronicka.
    In most African countries, the ontological and epistemological standard that shapes university curricula is a pre-programmed Euro-Western educational model. This is true regardless of the fact that most African countries gained their independence many decades ago. African countries pride themselves on political independence rather than epistemological and ontological autonomy. The legacy of socio-political histories has resulted in indigenous knowledge of Africa to continue to be despised. This coloniality underpins the intellectual colonialism which is evident in the marginalisation of indigenous knowledge systems and their community sages in formal education currently. This has been normalised and accepted as the default setting because the colonised have learned to live with an alien curriculum. Consequently, this contributed to the dearth of African indigenous scholarship and the erosion of the indigenous knowledge base as globalisation, modernity, urbanisation, and technological advancement come to the fore. This study selectively explored part of the university curriculum by examining content knowledge and pedagogical approaches in four Biology modules for pre-service teachers, relative to a specific field, namely, infectious diseases, at Midlands State University in Zimbabwe. The study also sought to identify knowledge of infectious diseases and the practises of Karanga healers and to suggest how these could be integrated into the Biology curriculum for pre-service teachers. The study was motivated by the lack of contextualisation in science education which is perpetuated by privileging a predominantly Euro-Western university curriculum. In order to peer through the decolonial lens that promotes indigenisation of science modules, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Karanga healers to understand indigenous knowledge of infectious diseases. Exploration of main themes revealed that disease management is seen in terms of causes of infections, diagnosis, prevention and treatment, and traditional health education to promote a disease-free community. The knowledge shared by the Karanga healers illuminated the holistic perspective of indigenous Africans on health, from both the physical and spiritual perspectives. The study also examined the nature of four health-related modules for Biology pre-service teachers and found that the Euro-Western worldview dominated over the African-Indigenous worldview. Therefore, the content and pedagogy that shaped and continue to shape these modules are predominantly Euro-Western. A comparison of the two knowledge systems reveals points of dissonance and concurrence. Synthesis of research data revealed gaps, connections, and opportunities through which indigenous knowledge can be integrated into Biology modules. Using an emancipatory approach situated within the critical paradigm, the study developed practical transformational approaches rooted in promoting a poly-epistemic university curriculum. The study proposed an integrative curriculum model informed by the need to give students the opportunity to reflect on their formal learning experiences against their lived experiences. In this way work towards an inclusive curriculum and inclusive pedagogy could be achieved.
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    The role of practical work in the teaching and learning of Physical Sciences in the context of high-stakes examinations.Indima edlalwa ukwenziwa komsebenzi ekufundisweni nasekufundweni kwe-Physical Science uma kubhekwa isimo sokuhlola esibucayi.
    (2021) Naidoo, Krishnaveni.; Hobden, Paul Anthony.
    Practical work implementation continues unchanged despite a lack of empirical evidence on its value. Enduring ideas about the role of practical work are used to justify exorbitant outlays on equipment, despite anecdotal observations to the contrary. To date, studies have mostly focused on resources, objectives achieved and teacher perceptions. Gaps in South African studies include how practical work is conceptualised in the curriculum, perceptions of its purpose, and implementation in the context of high-stakes examinations. To answer the focus question on the role of practical work, three research questions were used to explore the i) rationale ii) characteristics and iii) why practical work was done in particular ways. Using a qualitative research design, 24 teachers and four subject advisors were interviewed, the Physical Sciences CAPS curriculum document was analysed, and nine practical work lessons were observed. The first finding was that assessment determined practical work implementation. This was achieved by the influence of the role players at different curriculum implementation levels. Secondly, the respondents’ claims that doing practical work helps learn content, develop skills, and is an assessment requirement were also reflected in the CAPS document. However, it was found that the learning of content and not skills was prioritised. Thirdly, in the teacher-directed lessons, theory was revised, phenomena illustrated, basic skills practised, and data collected for the report write-up. Fourthly, the respondents held some commonly held misconceptions about practical work. These included doing practical work motivated learners, mirrored how scientists work, and the manipulative skills learnt were essential for learners’ success with tertiary studies and science careers. However, the activities appeared to only generate situational interest amongst the learners. Fifthly, not all abstract concepts could be illustrated through the concrete activities, and some phenomena were difficult to generate. In summary, the role of practical work in the teaching and learning of Physical Sciences in the context of high-stakes examinations was found to support the learning of theory and for assessment. Contributing to the literature, an adapted Lesson Observation Framework to determine the nature and effectiveness of the tasks and a revised classification system appropriate for resource-constrained contexts are proposed. IQOQA Ukwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla kuyaqhubeka ngendlela efananyo nakuba bungekho ubufakazi maqondana nosizo lwakho. Kunemibono ephambili mayelana nendima edlalwa ukwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla uma kuchithwa izimali ezinkulu kuthengwa izinto zokusebenza nakuba kungenabufakazi obubonakalayo ngakho. Kuze kube manje ucwaningo lugxila kwizinsizakusebenza, imigomo efezekile kanye nezindlelakubuka zawothisha. Amagebe akhona ocwaningweni eNingizimu Afrika ambandakanya indlela ukwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla okubukwa ngayo kwikharikhulamu, indlelakubuka yenhloso yako, kanye nokusetshenziswa kwayo uma kubhekwa isimo sokuhlola esibucayi. Ukuze kuphenduleke umbuzo mayelana nendima edlalwa ukwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla, kwabuzwa imibuzo emithathu yocwaningo ukuhlola i) izizathu, ii) izimpawu, nokuthi iii) kungani ukwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla kwenziwa ngendlela ethile. Kwalandelwa uhlobo locwaningo oluyikhwalithethivu, kwatholwa izinhlolomibono yothisha abangama-24 kanye nabahloli bezifundo abane. Kwahlaziywa umqulu wekharikhulamu i-CAPS yesifundo sePhysical Science. Umphumela wokuqala kwaba ukuthi ukuhlola yikhona okulawula ukusetshenziswa komsebenzi wezandla ngenxa yamandla alabo ababamba iqhaza emazingeni ahlukene okulandelwa kwekharikhulamu. Okwesibili, abacwaningwayo bathi ukwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla kusiza ekufundweni kokuqukethwe esifundweni, kuthuthukisa amakhono, kanti futhi kungenye yezinto okumele zihlolwe njengokulandelwa komqulu we-CAPS. Njengoba kwenziwa nakwamanye amazwe ase-Afrika ukufundwa kokuqukethwe esifundweni kuhamba phambili, okuyinto ephambene nokwenziwa kwamanye amazwe lapho amakhono ehamba phambili. Okwesithathu, ezifundweni eziqonde kuthisha kwabukezwa okubhaliwe kwachazwa izinto, kwenziwa amakhonongqo, kwaqoqwa imininingo ukuze kubhalwe umbiko. Okwesine, abacwaningwayo babenolwazi olungashayi emhlolweni mayelana nokwenziwa komsebenzi wezandla. Lolu lwazi olungesilo lumbandakanya ukuthi umsebenzi owenziwayo ukhuthaza abafundi, ukhombisa ukuthi ososayensi basebenza kanjani, ukukwazi ukuwenza kudingekile uma uqhubeka nezifundo zemfundo ephezulu kanye nemisebenzi yesayensi uma usuqede ukufunda. Nokho-ke kwatholakala ukuthi imisebenzi yayilivusa ilukuluku langaleso sikhathi kubafundi. Okwesihlanu, akuwona wonke umsuka wolwazi lwezinto ezingabonakali okwakulula ukuthi uchazwe ngemisebenzi yezinto eziphathekayo, kanti futhi kwakunzima ukwakha ezinye zezinto. Ekugcineni, indima edlalwa ukwenziwa komsebenzi ekufundisweni nasekufundweni kwe-Physical Science uma kubhekwa isimo sokuhlola esibucayi iyakuxhasa ukufundwa kokubhaliwe kanye nokuhlola. Kuphakanyiswa ukuthi kwenziwe i-Lesson Observation Framework ezothola ukusebenza ngendlela efanele kwemisebenzi eyenziwayo kanye nohlelo lwezigaba olubukeziwe.
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    Exploring grade 12 learners’ understandings of, and problem-solving approaches to work-energy-power in physical sciences in high schools=Ukhuphenya abafundi bebanga 12 Ukuqonda kanye nezindlela zokuxazulula izinkinga ekusebenzeni kwamandla kagesi esifundweni sePhysical Sciences ezikoleni zamabanga Aphezulu eLimpopo.
    (2021) Maharaj, Jayanthi Siva Kumaree.; Govender, Nadaraj.
    Learners in high schools are performing poorly on the topic Work Energy Power as is evident in the National Senior Certificate Examinations (NSC) since 2008. The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 12 learners’ understandings of, and problem-solving approaches to Work-Energy-Power in Physical Sciences in high schools. The combination of Phenomenography and Variation Theory (VT) have been found to be best suited as an approach with which to tackle the research questions in this study as it enabled the researcher to probe into learners’ understandings and problem-solving approaches through their (the learners’) eyes which was the purpose of this study. This research employed a mixed methods approach as it used both quantitative and qualitative methods underpinned by pragmatism and interpretivism. The mixed methods approach was heavily weighted on the qualitative aspect with the quantitative aspect focusing primarily on descriptive statistics that was used to inform the qualitative aspects. The sample comprised of 100 National Senior Certificate Physical Sciences Paper One examination scripts and eight Grade 12 Physical Sciences learners. This sample was selected from six schools in one province in South Africa. The sampling method involved convenience sampling and typical case sampling, which is a type of purposive sampling, at different stages of the sampling process. A semi-structured interview schedule, Think Aloud Questionnaire (TAQ) and the NSC examination scripts were used to collect raw data. The TAQ (Appendix 10) was the instrument that was used to gain insights into the “thinking” of learners using the Think Aloud Method. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via document analysis, thematic analysis and Think Aloud, all of which were underpinned by phenomenography and VT. The use of several data collection instruments and methods assisted with ensuring trustworthiness by triangulation. It was found that learners display seven alternative conceptions (ACs) about work, four ACs about energy and three ACs about power. Seven problem-solving approaches (PSAs) among Grade 12 Physical Sciences learners were identified, and these were missed the point state (MPS), limited (L), plug-and-chug-trial (PACT), layman’s approach (LAY), by elimination (BE), not shown (NS) and linked and integrated state (LIS). All the PSAs had problem-solving difficulties (PSDs) embedded in them except for the LIS approach. It was also found that awareness, simultaneity, discernment, reason, logic and clarity are important conditions for learners to fully understand scientific phenomena and successfully solve problems in physics. The last three conditions in the previous sentence, namely reason, logic and clarity, are being proposed in this study as additions to the current discourse on learning proposed by VT. The four patterns of variation namely contrast, generalisation, separation and fusion have been employed in this study as a possible explanation for the prevalence of alternative conceptions and problem-solving difficulties among Grade 12 Physical Sciences learners. IQOQA Abafundi ezikoleni zamabanga aphezulu abenzi kahle esihlokweni sokuSebenza kwaMandla kaGesi njengoba kubonakala emiphumelweni yabo kazwelonke yesitifiketi sikamatikuletsheni, i-National Senior Certificate Examinations (NSC) kusukela ngo-2008. Inhloso yalolu cwaningo kwakunguphenya ukuqonda kwaBafundi beBanga 12 ngeZindlela zoKuxazulula iziNkinga esifundweni sePhysical Science ezikoleni zamabanga aphezulu. Ukuhlanganisa iNjulalwazi yoShintsho kanye neyoHlalanto, i-Variation Theory (VT) sekutholakale ukuthi yikhona okungcono nokulungele indlela yokumelana nemibuzo yocwaningo kulolu cwaningo njengoba kuvumela umcwaningi ukuhlokoloza ukuqonda kwabafundi kanye nezindlela zokuxazulula izinkinga ngokwamehlo okubona kwabafundi. Lolu cwaningo lusebenzise izindlela zocwaningongxube njengoba kusetshenziswa zombili izindlela, eyocwaningozinombolo kanye neyekhwalithethivu, ezesekelwe izinhlelomqondo zenjulalwazi yokungenzeka kanye neyomhumusho. Indlela yocwaningongxube ibukwe kakhulu ngasohlangothini lwekhwalithethivu, bese kuthi ingxenye yocwaningozinombolo yona yagxila kakhulu ekuchazeni izinombolo. Isampula ibandakanye amaphepha ayi-100 okuhlola i-Physical Sciences iPhepha Lokuqala lokuhlola umatikuletsheni kanye nabafundi abayisishiyagalombili beBanga 12 be-Physical Sciences. Uhlaka lwezingxoxo esizakuhleleka, izinhlamibuzo zokucabanga ngokukhuluma, i-Think Aloud Questionnaire (TAQ) kanye namaphepha okuhlola e-NSC kusetshenzisiwe ukuqoqa imininingo. I-TAQ ibe ithuluzi elisetshenzisiwe ukuthola ukuzika ekucabangeni kwabafundi besebenzisa indlela yokuCabanga beKhuluma. Yomibili imininingo yocwaningozinombolo kanye neyekhwalithethivu kwaqoqwa ngokuhlaziya amadokhumenti, ukuhlaziya kwezindikimba kanye nokuCabanga ngokuKhuluma. Kutholakale ukuthi abafundi bakhombisa okunye ukuqonda okuyisikhombisa okwehlukile, i- alternative conceptions (ACs) mayelana nomsebenzi, ama-AC amane mayelana namandla kagesi kanye nama-AC amathathu amandla. Izindlela eziyisikhombisa zokuxazulula inkinga, ama-problem solving approaches (PSAs) phakathi kwabafundi beBanga 12 be-Physical Sciences atholakala futhi lokhu kwaba amagebe ezimo ezingatholakalanga, ama-missed the point state (MPS), okungaphelele, oku-limited (L), ama-plug-and-chug-trial (PACT), indlela kaLayman, i-layman’s approach (LAY), ngokususa, okusho ukuthi, by elimination (BE), okungaveli, okusho ukuthi- not shown (NS) kanye nesimo esixhumene kanye nesiyinhlanganisela, okusho ukuthi, linked and integrated state (LIS). Wonke ama-PSA ayenezinkinga zokuxazulula izinkinga, ama-problem solving difficulties (PSDs) ayeyamaniswe nawo ngaphandle kwendlela ye-LIS. Kwatholakala futhi ukuthi ukuqwashiseka, ukwenzeka kanye kanye, ukwahlulela okucacile, isizathu, umqondo kanye nokucaciseleka kuyizimo ezibalulekile kubafundi ukuze baqonde ngokugcwele isimo esinobusayensi kanye nokuxazulula izinkinga ngempumelelo esifundweni sePhysics. Izimo ezintathu zokugcina emushweni owandulela lo, okuyisizathu, isimo sokuqonda kanye nokucaciseka, kuyaphakanyiswa kulolu cwaningo njengezengezo kucwaningonto oluhlaziywayo ekufundeni okuphakanyiswe i-VT.
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    Nigerian root and tuber farmers’ responses to climate change: the role of indigenous knowledge=Izindlela abalimi bokusampande baseNigeria ababhekana ngazo nesimo sokushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu: Iqhaza lolwazi lwendabuko.
    (2022) Olaniyan, Bolanle Susan.; Govender, Nadaraj.
    This study explores the role of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Nigerian root and tuber farmers’ responses to Climate Change (CC). Root and tuber production in Nigeria has been steadily increasing despite the adverse effects of Climate Change. A literature review by the researcher showed that the farmers deploy their indigenous knowledge extensively in root and tuber production and respond to CC in the process, hence the need to document these indigenous practices for inclusion into mainstream climate change adaptation strategies and education curricula, which have hitherto been dominated by scientific knowledge. The study was framed by postcolonial theory, which is about how formerly colonized people write their narratives in their own words, without the coloured lens of the colonizers. Since IK is learnt by doing, situated learning theory (SLT), which posits that learning is a social phenomenon that occurs during everyday interactions, was employed in the exploration of IK used by the root and tuber farmers. Participatory phenomenology, which is a combination of participatory research and phenomenology was the methodology used to document the farmers’ experiences and report their responses concerning CC and IK. Focus group discussions were held in six villages across Kwara state, Nigeria, to elicit their experiences of CC and one participant per village was then selected for in-depth interview and participant observation. Inductive thematic analysis was applied to the data generated. The findings showed that the major experience of CC by the root and tuber farmers has been changes in the rainfall pattern, which takes the form of early or delayed onset of rainy season, and reduction in the amount and intensity of rainfall. Other indicators of CC were also identified. The farmers also responded to CC by use natural resources in a sustainable manner. They used their IK of soil water conservation by making mounds on which they planted, they maintained soil fertility by practising crop rotation, and used compost made from household waste. The farmers’ preference for IK in adapting to CC was attributed to IK being effective, easily accessible and inexpensive along with their antipathy towards scientific interventions. The study leads to suggested ways of including the documented IK into mainstream adaptation strategies in Nigeria, and the agricultural curriculum at the secondary and tertiary education levels, to engender adoption of the blended strategies by all members of the society. IQOQA Lolu cwaningo lwalubheka iqhaza elibanjwa ulwazi lwendabuko i-indigenous knowledge (IK) ekubhekaneni nesimo sokushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu iclimate change (CC) kubalimi bokusampande ezweni laseNigeria. Ukukhiqizwa kwezilimo ezisampande eNigeria kulokhu kukhula kancane kancane yize kunemiphumela emibi yokushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu. Ukufunda imibono yongoti ngocwaningo oselwenziwe ikhombisa ukuthi abalimi basebenzisa ulwazi lwendabuko (IK) kakhulu ekukhiqizeni izilimo ezisampande kanti indlela abenza ngayo inokubhekana nalesi simo seCC. Ngaleyo ndlela kubonakale kunesidingo sokuzibhekisisa nokuziqopha lezi zindlela ukuze zifakwe njengengxenye yamasu okubhekana nesimo sezulu kanye nekharikhulamu yezemfundo ebibonakala ibuswa kakhulu ulwazi lwezesayensi. Ucwaningo lwasebenzisa ipostcolonial theory, okuyinjulalwazi ebheka ukuthi abantu ababeqonelwe amanye amazwe phambilini bazibhala kanjani izindaba ngempilo yabo ngawabo amazwi, ngaphandle kokuqonelwa yihlo lomcindezeli. Njengoba ulwazi lwendabuko i-IK lufundwa ngokwenza, isituated learning theory (SLT), ebeka ngokuthi ukufunda yinto eyenzeka emphakathini ngokuxhumana kwabantu kwansuku zonke, yaba wumgogodla walolu cwaningo. Ucwaningonto lokubamba iqhaza, okuyinhlanganisela yokubamba iqhaza kanye nohlaziyonto, kwaba yizindlela ezasetshenziswa ukuqopha okwenziwa abalimi bese kubikwa ngezimpendulo zabo mayelana neCC kanye ne-IK. Izingxoxo zamaqoqo ababambiqhaza zenziwa emiphakathini eyisithupha eKwara State, eNigeria, ukuze kuzwakale izimvo zabo ngeCC. Umbambiqhaza oyedwa emphakathini ngamunye wakhethelwa imposambuzo ejulile kanye nokucwaninga ngokuqaphela umbambiqhaza. Uhlaziyongqikithi oluholela kokuthile lwasetshenziswa ukuhlaziya imininingo. Imiphumela yakhombisa ukuthi ulwazi lweCC olunzulu lwabalimi bokusampande lwalumayelana nokuqaphela ukushintsha kwendlela imvula eyayina ngayo kanti nezinye izinkomba zeCC nazo zahlonzwa. Abalimi bahlangabezana nesimo seCC ngokusebenzisa izinsizasidingo zemvelo ngendlela esimamisayo. Basebenzisa ulwazi lwendabuko i-IK lokonga amanzi enhlabathini ngokwenza izindunduma okuyizona ababetshala kuzo, bakwazi ukugcina ukuvunda kwenhlabathi ngokutshalakushintshanisa, base besebenzisa nomquba owakhiwe ngemfucuza yobekusetshenziswa endlini. Ukuthi abalimi bakhethe i-IK ukuze babhekane neCC kwenziwa wukuthi le ndlela yolwazi lwendabuko isebenza kahle, ifinyeleleka kalula kanti ishibhile uma iqhathaniswa nokungenelela ngokwesayensi ababengakuthandisisi. Ucwaningo lwaholela ekutheni izindlela zendabuko ezahlonzwa zaqoshwa zibandakanywe kulawo masu ajwayelekile okumelana nezimo eNigeria, kanye nakuyo ikharikhulamu yezolimo emabangeni aphezulu nasemfundweni ephakeme ukuze kwamukelwe amasu axubile okwenza izinto emphakathini.
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    Exploring university-community engagement by pre-service Science teachers through the study of a Biology module.
    (2019) Adebayo, Oluwakemi Ayodeji.; Mudaly, Ronicka.
    Abstract available in PDF.
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    The intersection between ICT and climate smart agriculture in adapting to the impacts of climate change on food production by uMsinga’s smallholder farmers: implications for climate change education.
    (2020) Bakare, Olusegun Ojo.; Alant, Busisiwe Precious.
    This study drew on community based participatory action research (CBPAR) and living theory (LT) to explore the intersection between information and communication technology (ICT) and climate smart agriculture (CSA) in enhancing the ability of smallholder farmers (SHFs) to adapt and mitigate the impacts of climate change in uMsinga, an impoverished rural area in KwaZulu-Natal. As action research, it included a preliminary and main phase. At the preliminary phase, the study aimed to identify SHFs’ existing agricultural practices in relation to climate change adaptation, as well as their perceptions regarding the possible integration of ICT and agricultural practices. In the main phase, the study aimed to assess the existing ICT literacy and the required ICT literacy if SHFs are to integrate smartphones with their agricultural practices. It explored the kind of functionalities that SHFs wished to see in a possible weather app. In order to address these research questions, a sequential transformative mixed method approach guided by community based participatory action research (CBPAR) and living theory (LT) approach was employed. In the study, 35 uMsinga SHFs were engaged through community forum meetings. Two frameworks were employed to make sense of the findings in the study, namely: the theory of planned irrigators’ behavior (TPIB) as well as unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The theories were used to explore the nature of relationship which exist in the intersection between ICT and CSA. The findings, from the preliminary phase, show that the uMsinga SHFs practise seven CSA practices. The findings further revealed eight unintended challenges resulting from the SHFs’ choice of CSA practices. These challenges affirmed that the deployment of ICT alone is insufficient to solve the threats posed by climate change for food production by SHFs. As such, the findings further show that an overwhelming majority of the SHFs has a positive regard for the integration of ICT with CSA practices. However, two unintended problems appeared to be limiting the realisation of their intentions: inadequate ICT literacy skills and the absence of agro-weather application that is appropriate and suitable for this rural indigenous community. The CBPAR intervention thus focused on improving the SHFs ICT literacy skills and their ability to use an existing “Demo” weather app through their smartphones, to enhance their CSA practices. The findings, arising from this main phase of the study, highlight the “importance of context” in helping SHFs to mitigate the threats posed by climate change to food production, an issue that is completely ignored in curriculum policies and policies aimed at integrated national adaptation responses to climate change impact and vulnerability. The contributions to knowledge as well as the implications of findings are discussed within the context of the criticality of interfacing between ICT and SHFs CSA practices.
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    Unmasking how pre-service engineering graphics and design teachers read and interpret assembly drawing at a university of technology: a case study in Umgungundlovu, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2019) Sotsaka, Douglas Thembinkosi Sibusiso.; Singh-Pillay, Asheena.
    The study sought to find out how engineering graphics and design (EGD) pre-service teachers (PSTs) read and interpret assembly drawing (AD). This study was undertaken because newly qualified teachers of EGD need the relevant skills to teach EGD so that it activates learners’ spatial visual reasoning, and ensure good pass rates in the subject. Also pre-service teachers at a University of Technology in South Africa, find assembly drawings difficult to read, to interpret and to learn. The study was guided by four research questions: 1. What are first year EGD PSTs’ levels of spatial visualization ability? 2. How do first year EGD PSTs read and interpret AD? 3. Why do first year EGD PSTs read and interpret AD the way they do? 4. Does the reading and interpretation of AD, among first year EGD PSTs, change after mediation? If so how? If not why? The qualitative case study design approach was adopted. Data were generated through the Purdue spatial visualization test (PSVT), which is a mental rotation test, through two think aloud tasks, by individual interviews, focus group interview and collage making for both tasks. The findings reveal that as an object undergoes more rotations it becomes increasingly more difficult for first year EGD PSTs to mentally visualize and manipulate the object. Challenges experienced by the first year EGD PSTs include the inability to read and interpret information provided by exploded isometric drawing (3-D) and different views of each part in 2-D. The result is an inability to differentiate between orthographic and isometric projections, and to visualize the different views, inability to visualize or see spatial relationships between objects and rotate objects, inability to measure accurately and apply SANS code of practice as well as inability to assemble and recognize lines. Findings also confirm that spatial ability, the ability to mentally rotate or manipulate objects is not innate; instead it can be learned with training. The findings from this study are used to propose a model for linking the teaching and learning of AD in EGD. The model is shown as a graphic, indicating the links between teaching and learning of AD in EGD for PSTs doing Engineering Drawing and Design as their specialization subject.
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    Integrating Indigenous Knowledge (IK) artefacts and IK strategies in teaching mechanics: insights from community elders, physics teachers, and learners in Zimbabwe.
    (2019) Mudzamiri, Edson.; Govender, Nadaraj.
    The study is an exploration of how physics teachers can integrate indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) through using indigenous artefacts when teaching Advanced Level concepts in mechanics. It adds to the growing body of research on decolonizing indigenous curricula. The researcher was motivated by the negative effects of colonization in physics education, lack of contextualization when teaching Advanced Level physics, both of which make the subject difficult for learners resulting in low pass rates, high dropout rates, and loss of interest in the subject. The study also seeks to empower local communities of elders, teachers, and learners to participate in their education. The study was conducted in Masvingo District, a rural area in Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. It identified and explored a variety of indigenous artefacts that can be integrated in the teaching of physics. The artefacts are thus cognitively valuable in providing culturally sensitive scaffolding or meditational tools that facilitate deeper understanding of mechanics concepts. Theoretical frameworks of Vygotsky‟s sociocultural theory grounded in an indigenous research paradigm and humanity/Unhu/Ubuntu were used in this study. A transformative participatory Research (TPR) design was employed. Qualitative data were generated from a purposefully selected sample comprising 18 teachers, 15 learners from each of the three high schools and 22 elders from the community. The following research instruments were used in the study: observations, questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus group discussions. The findings revealed that the twenty indigenous artefacts identified in this study could be used in physics for conceptual teaching. The findings pointed to a culturally aligned, decolonizing, and contextualized and community acknowledged pedagogical science-IKS model which allows enrichment and understanding of physics concepts through IK artefacts, without challenging the fundamentals of traditional physics principles. The study implies that physics concepts can be understood through the indigenous knowledge systems of teachers, learners and the community together with the associated IK artefacts. The researcher recommended that IKS and associated IK artefacts should be integrated in all the components of the teaching processes and the school infrastructure should also promote the integration of western science with IKS.
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    Exploring how Science teachers engage in curriculum innovating in environment and sustainability education.
    (2017) Ismail, Raeesa.; Mudaly, Ronicka.
    Life Sciences and Natural Sciences teachers are expected to adapt and to implement curriculum changes that are designed by the Department of Basic Education. The new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) for Life Sciences and Natural Sciences stipulates that teachers are expected to integrate environment and sustainability content knowledge in their science teaching. In order for this to materialise, a specialised multi-pronged approach is necessary. It is argued that teachers work in diverse contexts and need to be innovative in order to teach science that is relevant to the lives of learners. I argue that effective professional development incorporating innovation can enable teachers to successfully teach environment and sustainability education. This study was located within a critical paradigm which was underpinned by a qualitative approach. This study involved ten practicing Life Sciences/Natural Sciences teachers who were purposively selected to form the research sample. These participants were part of the Science and Mathematics Education Honours programme and studied a module which required them to engage with the idea and practice of curriculum innovating, as part of the programme. The study was conducted at a teacher training institution in Kwa-Zulu Natal. This qualitative case study sought to explore the experiences and challenges of participants as they engaged in curriculum innovating in environment and sustainability education. The factors that enabled or constrained participants’ efforts to engage in curriculum innovating were also examined. This study also focused on the role of professional development in capacity building for the purpose of curriculum innovating. Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), Rogan’s Zone of Feasible Innovation (ZFI) and Vygotsky’s Engagement Theory the experiences and challenges of participants were analysed. Multiple data generation strategies were employed, namely: individual interviews, reflective journals, photo narratives and document analysis. Content analysis was used to analyse the data sets that emerged from the data generation strategies. The use of coding was employed to develop categories and patterns within the data sets. The findings included challenges and experiences of curriculum innovating in environment and sustainability education. A key finding was that participants expressed a need for the inclusion of innovating in more of the modules of the Honours programme. Findings from this study also revealed that the individual school context, iii resources and support from Heads of Department (HODs) were factors that enabled or constrained participants in their efforts to engage in curriculum innovating. The study provides insights into how a professional development module can provide teachers with strategies for critically appraising their context, thinking deeply about the type of support they need and how this can be leveraged, planning lessons in order to prepare for curriculum innovating, engaging more knowledgeable others to critique their lesson plans, implementing new strategies and reflecting on their experiences. The participants reported feeling renewed, refreshed, re-invigorated and intrinsically motivated to experiment with new ideas in order to engage in curriculum innovating. Recommendations from this study will be significant to curriculum designers, higher education department officials involved in teacher professional development, teacher education institutions and school teachers.
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    Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) provision in Nigerian technical colleges: exploring the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency (REE) of stakeholder partnerships using community-based participatory action research (CBPAR).
    (2018) Legg-Jack, Dagogo William.; Alant, Busisiwe Precious.
    This thesis explored Technical and Vocational Education and Training provision in Nigerian technical colleges with the specific focus on establishing the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of stakeholder partnerships. It used Community-based participatory action research. The study was guided by three research questions in the preliminary, and two for the main study. These research questions are outlined as follows: Preliminary Study 1. What is the extent of TVET provision across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria? 2. How does the TVET provision within these six geographical zones compare to the provision of general education schools? 3. What is the level of efficiency of a selected few TVET institutions across these geographical zones in Nigeria? Main Study 1. Are the selected TVET institutions surveyed in any form of partnership with any organisation? If so, what types of partnership are they involved in? 2. Using CBPAR, how do we strengthen and develop a new model of partnership for REE TVET provision in Nigerian technical colleges? In order to address these research questions, an explanatory sequential mixed method design involving a Community-based participatory action research was used. Data was collected for the preliminary study through desk review, document analysis and closed-ended questionnaires for the first, second and third research questions respectively. For the main study, data was generated through semi-structured questionnaires for research question one, whilst that of two was generated through pre- and post-intervention minutes of meetings, personal interviews and focus group discussions. Four frameworks were employed in the study. An analytical framework for evaluating TVET provision in terms of relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency was used to gauge the internal efficiency of selected technical colleges in research question three of the preliminary study. The Triple Helix (TH) and the Quadruple Helix Innovation Models (QHIM) were used to explore partnerships in the main study. The last framework – the Ecological System Theory (EST) – was used in understanding the development of a new relevant, effective and efficient (REE) partnership in TVET provision. The last theory, EST, was applied due to the limitations of the THM and the QHIM in describing the levels of interaction between different stakeholders in quality TVET provision. The EST however, allowed for the discovery of the different levels of interaction amongst stakeholders required to collaborate for REE TVET provision in Nigerian technical colleges. For research question one, the preliminary study results revealed 155 TCs across the six geopolitical zones. In addition, the provision was not evenly distributed because there is no technical college in Zamfara State in North-West. Research question two indicated a highly disproportionate ratio of TCs versus general education schools – ranging from 1: 138 to 1:70. For research question three the results showed that amongst the 22 technical colleges surveyed across the four geopolitical zones, only two colleges had their overall index of efficiency above 50%, with North-Central at 56% and South-West at 54%. Findings from the main study revealed, for research question one, that only 32% of TCs were involved in partnerships, that is, seven out of 22. However, it was significant to note that five out of the seven colleges were involved not only in one-to-one, but in multiple stakeholder partnerships. With regard to the prelude to research question two, using CBPAR, 26 factors were elicited to explain the low efficiency experienced by GTC-Port Harcourt. Thus, to strengthen and develop a new model of partnership for REE TVET provision in Nigerian technical colleges a new type of collaboration that portrays the characteristic features of the QHIM needed to be established – in other words, a new partnership arrangement that incorporates technical colleges, industry, government, and other stakeholders from civil society/NGOs, World Bank (IFC), community, Parents Teachers’ Associations (PTA), philanthropic individuals, and volunteers. Furthermore, the use of a social ecological lens on the new model of REE partnerships enabled the illumination of different interactions and impact levels among the various stakeholders. As opposed to other studies where government is the propelling force within the TVET system, this study shows that industry is key to the production of skilled graduates. The findings of this study have implications for policy, practice and research. Nigerian education policy acknowledges the need for the government to partner with other stakeholders in producing the skilled workforce needed in the country. However, findings in this study reveals a paradigm shift from government to the industry as the key stakeholder needed to produce a competent and skilled workforce needed for industrial development in Nigeria. Significantly, the implications of this study for practice is such that, having industry as the key stakeholder would boost the production of skilled graduates thereby reducing the skills mismatch that are the major cause of unemployment amongst secondary school leavers in Nigeria. It will also create room for gainful employment amongst the youths, thereby reducing the problem of unemployment. Industry provides inputs such as delivering workplace training to TVET trainers, contributing financially to national training funds, providing opportunities for teachers to regularly update themselves through workplace experiences, and contributing to development of the curriculum for economic relevance. The findings of this study also have implications for research, in that it has extended the debate on stakeholder partnerships in TVET provision through the application of the social ecological lens, which illuminates the different levels of interactions and impact amongst various stakeholders required for quality TVET provision.
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    Swaziland pre-service teachers’ understanding and enactment of inquiry-based-science teaching: a case of a university in Swaziland.
    (2019) Nhlengethwa, Khanyisile Brenda.; Govender, Nadaraj.; Sibanda, Doras.
    The current study adopted a case study design to understand the knowledge and skills related to inquiry-based science teaching (IBST) held by pre-service teachers at the conclusion of their three years training in science courses in an educational institution in Swaziland. Placed in the pragmatism paradigm, the study used a multi-methods approach. The purposively selected study sample consisted of 34 pre-service teachers at the end of their 3-year teacher preparation programme. In the first phase of the study, the researcher assessed the 34 preservice teachers’ understanding of IBST using a teaching scenario based questionnaire in combination with individual interviews with eight of the participants. Six participants from the sample of eight also volunteered for the second phase of the study, where their lesson plans, classroom observation recordings, and lesson interviews were used to gather evidence pertaining to their enactment of IBST during teaching practice. Data were analysed using a conceptual framework of IBST that outlines two dimensions: the cognitive and guidance dimensions. Findings from the first phase indicated that at the completion of the training programme preservice teachers held inadequate but varying conceptions of IBST. They either regarded IBST as engagement of learners in constructing knowledge about phenomena themselves based on evidence; or associated the pedagogy with different forms of learner engagement during the teaching process. Participants only identified prominent characteristics of the cognitive dimension of IBST, particularly those of the procedural domain. Concerning the guidance dimension, they connected IBST more with teacher directed activities. In their enactment of IBST, the six participants focused more on the conceptual domain while the epistemic domain was least represented. Concerning the guidance dimension of IBST, they mainly guided learners in formulating evidence-based conclusions. In the main, their enactment of IBST was shaped by their comprehension of the cognitive dimension of inquiry and their pedagogical content knowledge for facilitating inquiry-based learning. Extensive recommendations for teacher education and educational leadership are given. The effectiveness of the conceptual framework for identifying the pre-service teachers’ conceptions is discussed.
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    An exploration of the Akans’ (Ghana) and Zulus’ (South Africa) culturally-specific environmental ethics: implications for culturally-specific senior high school biology/life sciences[s] curriculum development and teaching.
    (2018) Opoku, Maxwell.; James, Angela Antoinette.
    Indigenous and local communities are repositories of the world’s genetic resources and biodiversity is interwoven with the well-being of indigenous people who have utilized it throughout millennia. This constant interaction by indigenous people with biological components of the environment has brought about various innovative ways of knowing and practices which include both science and indigenous knowledge. Many indigenous practices have been found to foster and enrich biodiversity at the local level, as well as help sustain salubrious ecosystems. This study explored the Akans of Ghana and the Zulus of South Africa Culturally-Specific Environmental Ethics (CSEE), how these CSEE could be taught in senior high schools’ biology/Life Sciencess curriculum, and the implications (prospects and challenges) for such teaching. The main purpose of the study was to explore the participants’ (indigenous knowledge holders of the Akan and Zulu cultural groups’) understandings, perceptions, practices and communication regarding their cultural groups’ peculiar environmental ethics, referred to as CSEE in this study. The study sought the views of both the indigenous knowledge-holders of the respective cultures and their senior high school biology/Life Sciences teachers. The research employed a multi-site ethnographic, naturalistic research style situated within the interpretivist paradigm to explore the phenomena under study. In-depth conversational interviews were used to collect qualitative data from the purposively selected participants using the snowball technique. The data generation process involved the production of a narrative analysis for each participant. The study found that there are diverse understandings, perceptions, practices and modes of communication among the Akan and Zulu cultural groups used to help value and care for their natural resources, as well as utilizing them sustainably. The understandings, perceptions, practices and communication for their CSEE are interwoven together and inform one another. A model for how to teach CSEE and other indigenous knowledge related topics in senior high schools’ science classrooms in Ghana and South Africa was developed from the research findings. The study found that in-spite of the many prospects for teaching CSEE in senior high schools, its effective teaching and resilience might be threatened by political, religious, socio-cultural and economic issues; and that the demand for proof and experimentation for many of the CSEE perceptions and practices, coupled with various forms of stigmatization are key challenges anticipated.
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    Exploring Zimbabwean students' approaches to investigations in advanced level Chemistry.
    (2017) Chirikure, Tamirirofa.; Hobden, Paul Anthony.; Hobden, Sally Diane.
    Abstract available in PDF file.
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    Using web 2.0 technologies to facilitate the collaborative design process among undergraduate engineering students: an actor network study.
    (2016) Chitanana, Lockias.; Alant, Busisiwe Precious.; Govender, Desmond Wesley.
    In this thesis I am motivated by a keen interest in design collaboration, and a belief that the quality of design interactions could be enhanced by employing a repertoire of the new and emerging collaborative technologies in the design process. In this study I employed actor network theory’s (ANT’s) methodological and theoretical framework to investigate the use of Web 2.0-facilitated collaborative design by Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering students at the Harare Institute of Technology. In line with ANT, I traced the collaborative design process by following the actors in action (Latour, 2005) when the forces of the network were at work, picking up the traces they left behind to constitute the empirical data for the study. By employing ANT analytical tools the data of the network-tracing activity reveals that the Web 2.0-facilitated collaborative process is an emergent actor network that evolves from associations created among the actors as they negotiate the alignment of interests through a series of translations that occur through moments of problematisation, interessement, enrolment and mobilisation (Callon, 1986b). As the actors went through the moments of translation, various interpretations of the design problem were translated into technical solutions and procedures to be followed in search of a satisfying design solution. The process of achieving agreement (or a stable network) is dependent on the translations that take place among the actors. The analysis shows that Web 2.0-facilitated collaborative design is an emergent process. It is a process that evolves from a translation process, during which a hodgepodge of decisions that cannot wait are taken in a complex, dynamic, fluid and constantly changing environment where actions cannot be planned or predicted in any mechanical way (Akrich, Collan, Latour, & Monaghan, 2002). Therefore, the path that the design process takes cannot be predetermined, but emerges from the network of relations that are created by the actors as they work together to achieve their commonly agreed design goals. Considering the Web 2.0-facilitated collaborative as an emergent process clearly demonstrated that it does not take place in a step by step way, as depicted by many design models. Instead, the process moves back and forth between different domains as the design problem and solution co-evolve and are continuously up for revision (Downey, 2005; Petersen, 2013). The affordances of Web 2.0 technology supported the messy talk (Iorio, Peschiera, & Taylor, 2011) that was critical to the development of design solutions. The emergent character of Web 2.0-facilitated collaborative design allows for important theoretical and practical lessons for design educators, to improve the teaching and learning of the collaborative design process. With collaborative design as an emergent process, it is no longer methods alone that produce results, but the reassemblage of the totality of translation that takes place among the actors into a stable network of relationships, and it cannot be taught outside of authentic design projects.
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    An exploration of general education and training teachers' democratisation of the science teaching and learning space.
    (2016) Jafta, Thomas Daniel.; Alant, Busisiwe Precious.; Vithal, Renuka.
    Abstract available in PDF file.
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    Public understanding of renewable energy technologies in Nigeria.
    (2016) Wojuola, Rosemary Nike.; Alant, Busisiwe Precious.
    Globally, there is a focus on generating energy from renewable energy sources in order to ensure sustainability. However, experience has shown that although the public generally accepts Renewable Energy Technology (RET), there is always opposition to their implementation. Renewable energy education is essential for the successful implementation of Renewable Energy Technology. This education can be used as a tool to enhance the public’s understanding, and to achieve the development of a sustainable lifestyle among the public. Efforts directed at studying the public’s understanding and acceptance of RET have consisted majorly of survey studies that lack theoretical background, and as such, could not gain an in-depth understanding of the public’s acceptance of RET. There is a need for studies that will explore the life experiences of the public, taking into consideration the various variables that dictate the nature of this understanding of RET. This study was informed by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) through which the beliefs, attitudes and perceptions about RET were examined as they related to sustainable behaviour. In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to explore the public’s understanding (inclusive of knowledge and beliefs, perceptions, and attitude) of Nigerians in relation to a sustainable lifestyle. This consisted of the concurrent use of focus groups and a survey study that allowed for both depth and breadth at the same time. The data were collected through four focus groups consisting of 23 participants, and a structured questionnaire, which was completed by 600 randomly selected participants. The data analysis was done using thematic analysis and through the use of the statistical package SPSS version 23. The outcome of this research shows that there is a general low level of knowledge about RET among the Nigerian populace, with males scoring higher than females. The statistical analysis carried out in this study shows a significance of 0.002, which is less than the level of significance of 0.005. This implies that there was no significant correlation between the level of education of the public and their knowledge of RET. The results also reveal that knowledge and beliefs about renewables, coupled with Perceived Usefulness and perceived ease of use, determines the populace’s attitude towards RET. A regression analysis between attitude and intention to use renewables yielded F=22.200 and p=0.000. This means that there was a significant relationship between the variables, showing that the research model is fit. Negative perceptions about the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) and the cost of installing RET were major factors that prevented the participants’ willingness to install renewables. There is thus a need for Renewable Energy education that is comprehensive enough to enhance a positive perception among the populace about RET. Also, sustainability should be included in energy education programmes in order to develop a sustainable culture in the nation.
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    The use of visual reasoning by successful mathematics teachers : a case study.
    (2015) Budaloo, Vishamlal Ramtahal.; Mudaly, Vimolan.
    Visualization has become increasingly important in view of the advent of technology which allows us to understand an idea at a single glance. Globally, educationists have been searching for ways to improve learners‘ understanding of mathematics. This has led them to believe that perhaps the focus on the teaching of mathematics needs to change. Contrary to the view that mathematics can only be presented sequentially, another view exists that mathematics is a multimodal discourse where different modes of representation are necessary. Whilst many of our learners experience serious difficulties in mathematics, as testified by the education authorities, there are groups of teachers that attain outstanding results in this subject. In this study I chose to explore how this group of people attain success, whilst engaging with the phenomenon of visual reasoning. The intention of this research was to interpret the kind of meanings that these successful teachers offered in their use of visual reasoning in their practice. Therefore in order to explore the personal, social and learning experiences of these successful mathematics teachers, a case study form of enquiry was employed, with the use of a social constructivist research paradigm, following a qualitative research tradition. A purposeful maximal sampling technique was used to identify five participants. Knowledge is not merely received but constructed by individuals or groups of people who try to make sense of their experiential worlds. This study sought to explore the ways in which these successful teachers constructed and interpreted the knowledge that they passed onto their learners, using the phenomenon of visual reasoning. Furthermore, constructivism as a research paradigm is characterised by plurality and multiple perspectives. Taking this into account, Attribution Theory, Gardner‘s Multiple Intelligences Theory and Situated Cognition Theory were used as a lens to explain the complex phenomena of visual reasoning and successful teaching. The results of the study showed that all the participants were actively engaged in using visual reasoning as a pedagogic practice in their mathematics classrooms. Explanations for their actions in terms of using visual reasoning resonated with the literature and the theoretical frameworks that were used.